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Full text of "King's college, Cambridge"

KIN* OLLfcGL 

AMBRIDCE 













LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF- 

CALIFORNIA 

SAN DIEGO 




the College 




monographs 



THE COLLEGE 

MONOGRAPHS 

Edited and Illustrated by 
EDMUND H. NEW 

TRINITY COLLEGE, 
CAMBRIDGE 

W. W. ROUSE BALL. 

ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, 
CAMBRIDGE 

THE SENIOR BURSAR. 

KING'S COLLEGE, 
CAMBRIDGE 

C. R. FAY. 

MAGDALEN COLLEGE, 
OXFORD 

THE PRESIDENT. 

NEW COLLEGE, 
OXFORD 

A. O. PRICKARD. 

MERTON COLLEGE, 
OXFORD 

REV. H. J. WHITE. 



KING'S COLLEGE Ctt\PEL- 





KING'S 




COLLEGE 



CAMBRIDGE 

BY 

C. R.\FAY 

SCHOLAR OF THE COLLEGE 



ILLUSTRATED BY 

EDMUND H. NEW 



1907 : LONDON : J. M. DENT & CO. 
NEW YORK : E. P. DUTTON 6" CO. 




All Rights Reserved 



NOTE 

THE extent of my indebtedness to the 
Architectural History of the University of 
Cambridge by Willis and Clark will be 
obvious to students of that work. 

The Provost (Dr. M. R. James), with 
whose approval I have written this mono- 
graph, has been kind enough to read through 
the manuscript and to add an Appendix in 
explanation of the Chapel Windows. 

I have to thank Mr. F. L. Clarke for the 
Index. 

C. R. FAY, 

Scholar of the College, 

January 1907. 



Vll 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. 



I. TO-DAY AND IN 1440 i 

II. THE OLD COURT AND THE OLD 

PROVOST'S LODGE .... 8 

III. THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN AND THE 

CHAPEL ...... 15 

IV. LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS . 33 

V. THE STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

AND THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION . 49 

VI. FROM HENRY VI. TO THE PRESENT 

DAY ....... 67 

VII. SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN ... 88 

APPENDIX : THE WINDOWS OF KING'S 

COLLEGE CHAPEL . . . .103 

[By the Provost, Dr. M. R. James.] 

INDEX ........ 125 



IX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

The Chapel from Bodley's Court . . Frontispiece 

PAGE 

The S. Porch of the Chapel, and Gibbs's 

Buildings . . . . . . xii 

The Court from the S.E. . . . 4 

The Original Gate of Entrance ... 9 
Bay in the Chapel ; on the N. side . . 14 

The College from the Backs . . . .22 

Tudor Rose and Crown, from the interior of 

the Chapel 25 

Plan of the College . . . . -32 

Oriel in Scott's Buildings, from King's Lane . 4 1 
The Lectern and Choir, looking W. . .48 
The College Arms, from the E. side of the 

Chapel Screen . . \ . I . 51 

The Chapel from Market Hill, at Sunset . 58 

The Bridge, and Bodley's Buildings, from 

Queens' College Grove . . . . 66 
King's Parade, showing Gateway, Chapel, 

and the Senate House . . . i 82 
Distant View of the Chapel, from the river 

below the Town . . . .91 



King's College 




CHAPTER I 

TO-DAY AND IN 1440 

THE visitor to Cambridge, as he enters the 
town by way of Trumpington Street, 
passes a number of Colleges Peterhouse, Pem- 
broke, Corpus Christi, and St. Catharine's 
which command more or less of his attention. 
As he crosses past Bene't Street into the King's 
Parade he comes suddenly upon' a great pile of 
buildings to the left, enclosed behind a long 
ivy-clad screen, which covers almost wastefully 
a frontal of several hundred feet. Entering 
by the gateway of the Porter's Lodge, which, 
with its slender octagonal dome and stack of 
twelve independent pinnacles, has been com- 
pared to a decanter and wine-glasses, he sees 
before him a spacious court, in the middle of 
which is a fountain, and upon the pedestal of 
the fountain a figure cast in bronze, sad and 
pensive, bearing in his outstretched hand a roll 
of parchment. This is the charter with which 
King Henry VI., on the I2th day of February, 
A.D. 1440, founded to the glory of God, and 
of the Blessed Virgin and of St. Nicholas, his 
royal college of Cambridge. Around are the 
buildings that bear the name of his foundation. 

I A 



KING'S COLLEGE 



One of them, which occupies the whole 
length of the north side of the court, towers 
above the rest the College Chapel planned 
and executed according to the founder's own 
design. It is a unique structure, cathedral in 
size, chapel in plan. The style is rich per- 
pendicular, marking the point where the last 
Gothic meets the earliest Renaissance. The 
twelve great bays with their flying buttresses 
look sheer upon the lawn. Within and 
without the College the Chapel dominates 
and dwarfs the buildings around it. Seen 
from Trinity Street on a moonlight night, 
when flakes of cloud hurry across its pin- 
nacles, it seems like the weather-beaten 
sentinel of Time, silent and unchanging. Or 
on a summer afternoon, at the close of the 
Sunday service, when the west door is thrown 
open and the sun floods in, illuminating the 
delicately fanned roof and colouring the rich 
glass in the long range of windows, while the 
music of the great organ rushes out into the 
bright air, there seems to speak the harmony 
of mediaeval religion, imaginative, fervent, 
aspiring. 

The other buildings of the court, the work 
of later and more prosaic generations, con- 
fess an inability to challenge on equal terms. 
Gibbs's building, on the west side, instinct 
indeed with harmonious beauty, looks stately 
and severe, on a wet day almost frigidly pale. 
Its unshapely, discoloured chimneys were not 
designed by the architect. Wilkins's building, 
to the south, is Gothic of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, complete, yet rather uninspiring, some- 
2 



TO-DAY AND IN 1440 



thing like the strictly- matched frills of an 
ample dame. The Dining Hall, which occu- 
pies the greater part of the range, is among 
the largest of the College Halls. The roof 
is of plaster, cleverly coloured to produce the 
appearance of wood. On the oak-panelled 
walls hang portraits of famous Kingsmen, 
three of them by Hubert Herkomer Henry 
Bradshaw, Librarian of the University ; Dr. 
Okes, the last Provost but one ; and Vis- 
count Stratford de Redcliffe, cousin of George 
Canning. The familiar faces of Sir Robert 
Walpole in the centre and his son Horace 
on the right look down upon the dais or 
high table. 

Clustered behind Wilkins's buildings are the 
Kitchens, Chetwynd Court, the Lane, and 
Scott's building, with its commanding frontal 
on King's Parade, all manifestly additions. 

From Gibbs's archway, which with untra- 
versed ground on either side looks rather 
meaningless, the great back lawn opens out 
to view ; to the north, the compact and 
faultless buildings of Clare ; to the south, 
in considerable contrast, the continuation of 
Wilkins's buildings, the Library (which con- 
tains about 30,000 volumes acquired, with a 
few exceptions, since 1644), and the Provost's 
Lodge, with their extended fronts. Close 
by the river, sheltered by four huge elms, 
lies New King's, Bodley's Court, built four- 
teen years ago in a pleasing Gothic style. 

Let the visitor pause by the Porter's Lodge 
at the corner of Bodley's Court and mark 
the view across the lawn : the grey stone 
3 



KING'S COLLEGE 



of Gibbs's, almost white in the glare of the 
sun : the western front of the Chapel, with 
its richly ornamented porch and great window 
above : in the corner, behind the railings of 
Clare, the yellow stone of the University 
Library, its rare gateway barely visible the 




THE COURT 



original gateway of Old King's. Or let him 
stand upon the bridge and look around : to 
the south, the quaint wooden bridge and 
grove of Queens' : to the north, Clare Bridge, 
with its cannon balls of stone : beyond, the 
Town Bridge : beyond again, the bridge of 
Trinity College : eastward, the wide stretch 
of green grass : westward, the Scholars' Piece, 
4 



TO-DAY AND IN 1440 



with its broken, elm-studded causeway stand- 
ing out against the dark thick avenue of the 
Backs, or enveloped on an autumn evening 
in a purple haze. Lovelier prospects rarely 
meet the eye. 

Such is the College to-day. How different 
in 1440 ! Cockerell's building of the Univer- 
sity Library for nearly four centuries the Old 
Court of King's was a garden belonging to 
Trinity Hall. King's Parade was called High 
Street. To the north of the site of the Porter's 
Lodge, exactly opposite St. Edward's Passage, 
ran Piron Lane, striking another lane to the 
left of Gibbs's archway. The chapel site 
was occupied by three separate properties the 
choir by the quarters of Lincoln the draper 
and St. Thomas' Hostel ; the antechapel by 
a Grammar College, called God's House, reach- 
ing down to Piron Lane. The Porter's Lodge 
was a " vicarage house of St. Edward, called 
St. Edward's Hostel." 

Gibbs's buildings would have looked on 
various grounds. Staircase " H " on the pro- 
perty of the White Canons of Sempringham ; 
" G " on that of the nuns of St. Rhadegund ; 
" F " on a tenement of Bartholomew Morris 
of Trinity Hall. From north to south over 
the site of Gibbs's itself ran Milne Street, one 
of the main roads into Cambridge. 

Then to the west, where is now the single 
stretch of the back lawn, was a church, three 
hostels, and some common ground. The 
Church of St. John Zachary stood due west 
of the antechapel, its altar resting on 
the western severy. (There was in the 
5 



KING'S COLLEGE 



fifteenth century another Church of St. John 
Baptist built to replace this one just to the 
north of Old Court.) Bodley's Court was 
the garden of the Carmelites. The College 
kitchens a hostel of St. Austin. The build- 
ings about King's Lane two taverns, " Le 
Boreshede " and the White Horse Inn of 
Reformation fame. 

This was the ground on the eve of the 
foundation. The small site of Old Court 
King Henry presented to his College in 
1441 ; the larger site, so far, roughly 
speaking, as the line of King's Lane and 
the Provost's Lodge, in 1449. The re- 
mainder to the south was acquired by later 
generations. 

And if the site of King's was different then, 
Cambridge in general offered as contrasted a 
picture. Peterhouse, Clare, Pembroke, Gon- 
ville and Caius, Trinity Hall and Corpus 
Christi alone of the Cambridge Colleges were 
in existence. St. Catharine's College was a 
group of dwellings. Queen's College, or the 
College of St. Bernard, wanted as yet its 
second Queen and its larger site of the Car- 
melites' ground. Trinity College, represented 
only by the separated foundations of King's 
Hall and Michael House, waited for amal- 
gamation under Henry VIII. Emmanuel 
College was the dwelling of Dominican Friars. 
Jesus College the disorderly home of the 
nuns of St. Rhadegund. No Senate House ; 
no University Library ; St. Mary's existent, 
yet not in its present form. Market Square 
rough and hilly ground round which Erasmus 
6 



TO-DAY AND IN 1440 



could canter for his afternoon's exercise nearly 
a century afterwards. 

On this site, in this environment, moved by 
motives unknown perhaps by the inspiration 
of his natal saint, Nicholas, protector of the 
young, perhaps by the promptings of his Bishop 
Tutor, perhaps by the spirit of the age and 
his own aversion to warlike things King 
Henry VI. determined to build. 




9 

// CHAPTER II 



THE OLD COURT AND THE OLD 
PROVOST'S LODGE 

ON the late garden of Trinity Hall, the 
first stone of the Old Court of King's 
was laid by the founder himself, on Passion 
Sunday, the 2nd of April 1441. 

The site was cramped and irregular. Milne 
Street, the western boundary, bent inward at 
its northern limit, and thus prevented the erec- 
tion of the buildings in a true square. On the 
eastern side stood the schools of Theology and 
Canon Law, against which it was impossible to 
build at all. Hence the old court was three- 
sided, the north side contracted at the western 
corner and slightly overlapping the schools on 
the eastern corner. Perhaps these limitations 
of space account for the adoption of three 
floors in the range of chambers instead of 
the usual two. 

But the buildings were never properly 
finished. The court was so small 40 yards 
by 25 that the founder was petitioned to 
find a larger site. This he did ; with the 
result that the original buildings were hastily 
completed in a temporary manner for use 
until the larger college was built. But the 
larger design was itself left unfinished, so that 
the temporary buildings of the old court became 
the permanent habitation of the College up to 
8 



THE OLD COURT 



the beginning of the last century. This break 
in the scheme was apparent in the architecture. 
The southern side and the western, from the 




THE ORIGINAL GATE OF ENTRANCE 

south as far as the gateway, which were com- 
pleted under the founder's direction, were of 
fine and beautiful proportions, manifestly the 
work of a first-rate architect ; the remainder, 
completed later, was poor and unsubstantial. 

9 



KING'S COLLEGE 



In 1829, wnen the new buildings had come 
into use, Old Court was sold to the University, 
and the buildings thereon demolished, to make 
way for an extension of the University Library. 
One piece alone escaped, the old unfinished 
Gate of Entrance " a venerable and beautiful 
specimen of architecture " which the Univer- 
sity had not the heart to destroy. It was there- 
fore incorporated with the new library building, 
and stands thus at the present day. The stone 
of the original gateway, as well as some frag- 
ments of the walls to the north and south, is 
plainly distinguishable from the rest. 

This, the main gate of entrance, stood in the 
centre of the west front. The south and west 
sides were occupied by chambers. The Hall 
was near the east end of the north side, and 
was entered by a picturesque wooden porch. 
Westward of it stood a timber house containing 
the Butteries, and a room called " The Bursars' 
Parlour," in which the three Bursars dined 
together apart from the other Fellows. The 
Treasury was above the main gate of entrance, 
occupying the first floor. It still contains an 
original stone fireplace of excellent workman- 
ship and in good preservation. At the eastern 
extremity of the south side there was a passage 
into the grounds south of the College, called 
" Cow Lane." This passage led to the old 
chapel, which stood immediately to the south 
of the Old Court, and to the north of the 
present chapel. 

The chambers on the west and south side 
were approached by stone staircases in the form 
of octagonal turrets projecting from the inner 
10 



THE OLD COURT 



walls of the quadrangle, instead of by the usual 
internal staircases. The ground floor was ap- 
propriated chiefly to the scholars four to a 
room. The two upper storeys were occupied 
by the fellows, of whom two were lodged in 
each room. The buildings were thus made to 
provide sufficient accommodation for the seventy 
poor scholars of King Henry's larger design ; 
from which it is clear that Old Court, though 
begun for the first foundation of thirteen mem- 
bers, was not completed until the second scheme 
had been adopted. 

So for three centuries and a half Old Court 
stood incomplete, but unchanged, while the 
larger site outside was gradually assuming the 
appearance of Modern King's. 

One of the last residents in Old Court the 
Rev. W. H. Tucker, but lately dead has de- 
scribed Old Court between 1822-1825, during 
his years of residence as a scholar : " Our Court," 
he writes, " was not an imposing structure, save 
in its beautiful gateway. Along the eastern 
length ran the University wall plain, sheer, 
casemated and unadorned. The Hall was mode- 
rate in size and of no style ; panelled and painted, 
with a central stove. It had five tables four 
for dining, the fifth for hats and caps. Always 
very popular, and deservedly so on feast days. 
The Courts were wholly unpaved, rough 
gravelled, and rather grotesque under its 
ancient and modern look ; with its bricklayer's 
white-sided schools, tiled Hall, and red-bricked 
wall, screening the lower side of the modern 
kitchens. But we cared little for all that. 
We were free : it was our Alsatia : and we 
ii 



KING'S COLLEGE 



did pretty much as we liked. We had it 
all to ourselves." 

The Freshman started life on the ground 
floor. Mr. Tucker had rooms on the right 
hand of the Old Gateway. " The sitting-room 
was not an inviting room. Large, low, square- 
marked walls, of a tint between lemon and 
Seville orange ; rusty grate in the corner, and 
one small-paned window. A threefold deal 
bookcase of bluish-grey with dabs of ox-tongues 
nearly filled up one side ; bookcase legacied 
from tenant to tenant, for which I had to pay 
my chum at his valuation." 

The Chum, or second year man, who looked 
after the Freshman below, lived on the first 
floor in pleasanter chambers, " handsomely pan- 
elled in oak, but painted in modern times." 
The top storey was at this time used as 
lumber rooms " uninhabited in the memory of 
man." The mullioned windows were all fitted 
with curtains of moreen at first grey, after- 
wards, as age advanced, dyed scarlet ; handed 
down from tenant to tenant, fixtures for all 
time. 

Such was Old Court in 1825 > but its doom 
was sealed, and ten years later it was no more. 

The tenth of the Founder's Statutes directs 
that a distinct and separate dwelling-house is 
to be assigned to the Provost, in order that his 
diverse occupations in the despatch of College 
business may not interrupt the Fellows and 
Scholars. And accordingly such a house was 
built as early as 1450, between the High Street 
(King's Parade) and the present chapel. It 
was here that Queen Elizabeth was lodged on 

12 



THE OLD COURT 



her visit to the College. The building was on 
several occasions altered and extended. In its 
last period it occupied the ground east of the 
chapel, which is now enclosed between the 
screen and iron railings. A plain brick wall 
at that time sheltered it from the street. Mr. 
Tucker gives a picture of the Lodge three 
years before its demolition : " Viewed from 
the lawn, the Lodge presented to the eye a 
largish dark-red brick tiled house, many win- 
dows broad ; unsightly, but not uncommon. 
. . . The rooms of the Lodge, to which we 
were at any time admitted, were low, large, 
and panelled. One in particular was well re- 
membered by all of us. It was the room in 
which we were assembled en masse at the end 
of every Term to hear our merits. . . ." This 
was in 1825. A few years more and the Lodge 
was taken down. There is a new Provost's 
Lodge on a different site. It does not contain 
a tribunal before which undergraduates are 
terminally arraigned. 




THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN AND THE CHAPEL 

IN answer to the representations of the Pro- 
vost and twelve Scholars for the provision 
of further accommodation, King Henry VI. 
began in 1 443 the acquisition of the larger and 
present site of King's College. A few years 
later the ground was cleared and made ready 
for building. In 1448 the founder published 
the details of his larger design in a document 
which is noteworthy for the splendour of its 
conception, the elaboration of its provisions, 
and the solemn dignity of its utterance. This 
is King Henry's " will " ; not, however, a testa- 
ment, but simply a record of what the King 
calls in the opening sentence " My wille and 
myne entent" with respect to the arrange- 
ments and completion of his two Royal Colleges 
of Eton and Cambridge. It declares the new 
design which he had matured to supersede his 
earlier scheme of a little College unconnected 
with any school. One half of the clauses, 
therefore, refer to Eton College and one half 
to the College at Cambridge. The provisions 
in the Will are concerned solely with the de- 
sign of the buildings and the payment of the 
requisite funds, just as the Statutes, which he 
published in the following year, prescribe the 
organisation and life of the twin societies which 
15 



KING'S COLLEGE 



were to inhabit them. The design for Eton 
College is beyond the scope of this narrative. 
The design for the King's College at Cam- 
bridge, as noble as that for Eton, yet less happy 
in its fate, will be briefly described. 

The buildings were to be grouped around a 
great quadrangle on the site, roughly speaking, 
of the present front court : on the north the 
chapel ; on the east dwelling-rooms broken by a 
gate of entrance from High Street ; on the south 
the dwelling-rooms continued and the Provost's 
lodge ; on the west the library and the hall 
with buttery attached. Behind the hall a 
kitchen court, about which were grouped bake- 
house, kitchen, and offices. Behind the library 
and the west end of the chapel, and somewhat 
removed from them, a cloister cemetery, and 
to the west a tower built out from the cemetery. 
Between the cemetery and the kitchen courts 
a path leading to the river, and spanning the 
river a bridge. The buildings in the court 
were to abut on each other, not being de- 
tached, as are the buildings there to-day. Until 
the erection of Wilkins's buildings at the be- 
ginning of the last century, the eastermost bay 
of the south side of the chapel was still left 
unfinished ; the upper half of the window was 
glazed, the lower made up with panelling. The 
octagonal turret of the corner had a rough sur- 
face of toothings, waiting for the buildings which 
never came. 

The chambers on the south and east side, 

which were to be built in three floors, were 

fifty-four in all, or about twice as many as in 

the Old Court. The hall, as at Eton, was 

16 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 

raised on a vaulted cellar, and was reached by 
a tower staircase. The library was also placed 
on the upper storey, with a lumber room above 
and a room below for lecturing and disputa- 
tions. Though the cloister was not built, the 
ground was consecrated, and used for burials 
for many years. It was reserved for the fellows, 
scholars, chaplains and clerks, only the higher 
dignitaries being granted the honour of inter- 
ment in the chapel. 

The design is characterised by true mediaeval 
asymmetry. The gatehouse neither in the 
middle of the eastern range nor corresponding 
with the passage towards the river opposite ; 
the Hall at the south end of the western range; 
the Cloister, with the magnificent tower, which 
would have been the grandest architectural 
monument of Cambridge, in no symmetrical 
connection with the chapel. The whole never- 
theless attaining a harmony bolder and more 
pleasing than the stilted symmetry of later 
ages. 

And yet this monument of high and holy 
thought, this cherished will of Henry, feeble 
king and mighty architect, was to perish, still- 
born well-nigh all of it, before the strife of 
dynasties and the sluggishness of the times ; 
against which could not avail the closing words 
of the founder's most solemn charge, admonish- 
ing of "the terrible comminations and full 
fearful imprecations of holy scripture agayns 
the brekers of the lawe of God and the letters 
of goode and holy werkes," as each must answer 
" before the blessed and dredeful visage of our 
Lord Jhesu in his most fereful and last dome, 

17 B 



KING'S COLLEGE 



when euery man shall most strictly be examined 
and demed after his demeritees." 

Of the great design conceived by the founder, 
the chapel is the only part that was carried out. 
The first stone was laid by the king in person 
at the altar site on Saint James' Day, 25th July 
1446. But the defeat of the king at the battle 
of Towton in 1461, and the subsequent over- 
throw of the Lancaster dynasty checked pro- 
gress. Some little was done under Edward IV. 
Richard III. resumed the work with vigour, 
but in his short reign of three years he could 
not do more than finish off the portion of the 
work begun by his predecessors. When he 
died in 1485, it is probable that the five eastern 
bays had been completed and covered with a 
timber roof. This part of the building was 
possibly now opened for church services, al- 
though the earlier and smaller chapel to the 
north of the present building still served the 
Kingsmen on ordinary occasions. 

Thus the chapel stood for more than twenty 
years, the great choir unvaulted, without turrets 
or pinnacles, flanked to the north and south by 
smaller chapels all without battlements, some 
unvaulted. But the idea was there, the stimulus 
was given, and it remained for a later genera- 
tion only to imitate and complete. To whom 
the plan was originally due is a matter of some 
doubt. John Langton, chancellor, Nicholas 
Close, one of the six original fellows, Robert 
Wodelarke, also an original fellow, and Provost 
from 1452-1479, held successively the office of 
" magister operum " under Henry VI. ; and of 
these three tradition has singled out Nicholas 
18 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 

Close for the honour of architect, because he 
received a special grant of arms from Henry VI. 
" for the laudable services rendered by him in 
many ways, both in the works of the building 
of our College royal and in other matters." 
But as these three men were all ecclesiastics, 
it seems more reasonable to suppose that they 
exercised (no doubt with greater efficiency) the 
functions of the modern building committee ; 
and that they merely supervised the work of a 
master mason, who was responsible for the 
actual plans. This master was in all probabil- 
ity Reginald Ely, appointed by royal patent "to 
press masons, carpenters, and other workers." 
John Woolrich in 1476 and John Sturgeon in 
1483 were his successors in the post. It was 
not till the last year but one of his reign that 
King Henry VII., moved perhaps to emulate 
the liberal example of his pious mother, the 
Lady Margaret, made several large grants of 
money to the College, which enabled contracts 
to be drawn up for the completion of the 
chapel. John Wastell was master mason, and his 
overseership extending from 1508 to 1515, 
into the seventh year of King Henry VIII. 's 
reign brought the stone-work of the chapel 
to completion. The total cost in the present 
value of money amounted to 160,000, of 
which two-thirds was spent in the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

The chapel is 289 feet long, 40 feet wide 
from pier to pier, and 80 feet high from the 
floor to the central point of the stone vault, in 
almost exact accordance with the provision of 
the founder's will. 

19 



KING'S COLLEGE 



Low chapels occupy the spaces between the 
buttresses on both sides of the main building, 
with the exception of one bay at the east and 
two at the west end, which were left vacant 
in anticipation of the quadrangle, which had 
been planned to connect with the chapel at 
the east and west corners. The will directs 
that there shall be " betwix every of the same 
boteraces in the body (i.e. the antechapel) of 
the chirche, on both sides of the same chirche, 
a closette with an auter therein." The design 
actually employed differs from the will in two 
respects. First, the side chapels are continued 
along the choir, as well as the antechapel ; 
secondly, they were not all furnished with 
altars. The two most easterly at least were 
designed for vestries to take the place of the 
separate vestry on the north directed in the 
will ; for they not only occupy the usual 
position of those offices, but are entered from 
the presbytery through richly moulded door- 
ways. Most of the remainder were used as 
chantries until the time of the Reformation. 

The first chapel on the south side next to 
the door of entrance contains tablets to Pro- 
vosts Sumner and Thackeray. The second is 
known as Hacumblen's chapel, and in it there 
is a brass marking the place of his burial. This 
chapel also contains the tomb of the great Duke 
of Marlborough's only son, John Churchill, 
Marquis of Blandford, who died of the small- 
pox in 1702, while resident in the college as a 
fellow-commoner. The third chapel is Brassie's 
Chapel, the Provost of that name having been 
buried here in 1558. The six chapels along 
20 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 

the south side of the choir contained the college 
books, until the present library was built by 
Wilkins. One of them is now the music 
library, the remainder the muniment rooms, 
where the college records are kept. 

There are two pieces of interesting furni- 
ture here the old money chest, at present filled 
with a heap of ancient papers ; and a wooden 
case with a glass front, like a sentry-box, in 
which a malefactor was entombed (the bodies 
of malefactors were devoted in earlier times to 
purposes of anatomy), until a later and more 
kindly generation committed his relics to the 
ground. The chapels on the north side are 
used as store, heating, and vestment rooms. In 
one of them is stored a fifteenth-century pulpit, 
which is used once a year, on March 25, the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, when 
a member of the society preaches in the chapel 
before the University. 

In the main fabric there are four features of 
peculiar interest, which illustrate the gradual 
growth of the building, and mark the interval 
between the different styles. 

First of all the composition of the stone. It 
is of different kinds. The white magnesian 
limestone, from Thefdale or Hudleston, in 
Yorkshire, the supply of which was exhausted 
by King Henry VI. 's death, shows the work 
done during his reign. It is used in the base- 
ment, and in portions of all the walls, rising 
higher on the eastward than on the westward 
half; higher, too, on the north (which would 
look on the Old Court of King's) than on the 
south. Inside it is used to some extent in the 
21 



KING'S COLLEGE 



partition walls of the different side chapels. 
Hence it is clear that the whole chapel was set 
out at the beginning, in close correspondence 
with the dimensions assigned to it in the will, 
and the presence of the white stone in the 




THE COLLEGE FROM THE BACKS 



walls of the side chapels on the north and south 
sides of the choir proves that their erection was 
not an afterthought, but a change of plan 
adopted from the first. The second kind of 
stone with which the chapel was, with certain 
exceptions, completed is oolite from Welldon, 
in Northamptonshire, and Clipsham, in Rut- 
landshire. It was first used towards the end 
22 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 

of Edward IV. 's reign. The exceptions are 
the vaults of the north and south porches, and 
the west door-case. Here the stone is again 
magnesian limestone, but coming from the 
Yorkshire quarry of Hampole, and more yellow 
in colour. 

As late as 1771, it was possible to observe on 
the main beam opposite to the fifth buttress 
the coating of moss which had collected in the 
long interval in Henry VII.'s reign, when the 
chapel was left half-finished for twenty years. 
This has now disappeared, but the west side 
of the beam in question is in quite a different 
state from any of the others, or from its own 
eastern face, being much worn and decayed, as 
if from long exposure to the weather. 

Secondly, the burial directions contained in 
the wills of fellows and others. In Henry VI. 's 
reign they were to be buried " in the grave- 
yard of the College." From 1458 onwards 
the wills usually appoint some site within the 
Chapel walls, in the Choir, main or side 
Chapels of the " new Collegiate Church." 
In earlier times there was a considerable num- 
ber of burials in the Choir. The later burials 
have been in the great vault beneath the ante- 
chapel. This was opened for the last time for 
Provost Okes, in 1888. His initials, R. O., 
are inserted in the pavement, close by the 
south door of entrance. On the opposite side 
of the aisle C. S., 1 836," and H. B., 1 886 " 
mark the resting-places of Charles Simeon and 
Henry Bradshaw. 

Thirdly, the vaulting of the main and side 
chapels. The great vault, as it is now seen, is 
23 



KING'S COLLEGE 



a remarkably fine specimen of the fan-vault. 
But there seems little doubt that a different 
kind of vaulting was originally contemplated. 
In the first place, fan-vaulting did not come 
into fashion until after King Henry VI. 's 
death. Secondly, Reginald Ely, the first 
master mason, if he took for his model, as is 
probable, the Lady Chapel at Ely, would have 
arched the vault, and thus avoided the great 
space which now exists between the top of the 
windows and the spring of the vaulting. 
Thirdly, in the two most easterly chapels on 
the north side, which were among the first 
to be erected, the earlier and simpler form of 
" lierne " or " stellar " vaulting is employed. 
Moreover, in the piers of the main chapel 
there is one member at present unemployed, 
which would have been needed in lierne vault- 
ing ; while in one of the side chapels (Brassie's) 
the corresponding member has been chiselled 
away. 

Hence it may be concluded that lierne 
vaulting was originally designed for the main 
vaulting and piers built to support it. But in 
1476, John Woolrich, the new master mason, 
discarded the original design in favour of the 
new fan-vaulting, which was then coming into 
fashion : and his successors, who completed the 
work, followed the same model. This ex- 
plains the gap between the top of the windows 
and the roof. The windows, some of which 
were already finished, could not be raised. 
Therefore the wall was carried above them to 
support the comparatively flat fan-vaulting. 

Lastly, the ornamentation of the stone-work. 
24 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 



In Henry VI. 's work in the choir the style 
is pure, in accordance with his will that the 
" edification of my same College procede in 
large fourme clere and substancial, setting a 
parte superfluite of too gret curious werkes of 
entaille and besy mold- 
yng." As the build- 
ing proceeds westward 
it is enriched, if not 
overloaded with or- 
namentation, bearing 
in most cases Tudor 
emblems. The 
double niches in the 
windows and the 
heraldic badges carved 
profusely on the in- 
terior and exterior of 
the antechapel (only) 
are examples of the 
exuberance of detail 
which marks the last 
stage of perpendicular 
architecture. 

The design of the 
chapel was new in 
English architecture, 
but not absolutely 
original, for in the TuDOR RoSE AND CROWN 
cathedral of Albi, in 

southern France, as well as in two churches 
at Toulouse, vast buttresses supporting a great 
vault are in the same way supported them- 
selves by chantry chapels. But the vaulting 
of the later design is of a kind peculiarly 
25 




KING'S COLLEGE 



English ; it reappears in the Lady Chapel at 
Ely, in Bath Abbey, in St. George's Chapel 
at Windsor, and in Henry VII. 's Chapel at 
Westminster. 

The fittings of the chapel may be described 
under four heads : the Woodwork, the Altar, 
the Pavement, and the Windows. The last 
will be treated in a separate appendix. 

ROOD LOFT. The will of the founder pro- 
vides for a Rood loft with thirty-six stalls on 
each side, which, together with those placed 
against the Rood loft, are to accommodate 
seventy fellows and ten conducts. There is 
no mention of the substalls, which were there 
from the first, and they were evidently not 
intended ; for it is directed in the statute that 
if distinguished strangers were present they 
were to occupy some of the stalls, while the 
fellows stood below. The stalls, which were 
reduced in number to sixty, were not equipped 
with canopies, except those adjoining the 
screen. But the walls throughout were pro- 
bably covered with hangings. There is no 
evidence that a rood was ever erected. The 
Reformation, of course, rendered it undesir- 
able. 

The screen is the work of foreign, perhaps 
Italian, artists. The upper part of the organ 
loft is ornamented with roses, fleurs-de-lis, 
and portcullises. The under side of the 
projection which carries it bears devices, in 
which " A " occurs beside the royal letters. 
The letter refers to Anne Boleyn, the second 
wife of Henry VIII., and supplies the date 
of the work, 1531-1535, during which period 
26 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 

her influence was at its height. Here occurs 
also her badge a crowned falcon holding a 
sceptre, with a bunch ot roses before him. 
The lower part of the screen is divided into 
six bays by pilasters carrying round arches. 
On the bay adjacent to the south wall and 
looking on the antechapel is a crowned shield, 
which has the arms of Henry VIII. and Anne 
Boleyn impaled. The ornamentation, with its 
arabesque and foliage, exhibits throughout the 
most exquisite variety of detail. On the doors 
of the screen are carved the arms of Charles I., 
crowned and supported by a lion and an uni- 
corn, this portion forming the top of the gate. 
They are the work of the carver Woodroffe, 
and bear the date 1636. 

ORGAN AND ORGAN CASE. The organ 
case, so far as the general design is concerned, 
may be referred to Rene Harris and dated 
1688, but he very probably used portions of 
the case of the older organs, the first of which 
was set up by Dallam in 1606 (although por- 
tions of the present case have been held, and 
with good reason, to go back to the days 
of Henry VIII.). In 1859 the organ was 
much enlarged by Messrs. Hill. At this 
time, also, the angels holding trumpets were 
placed on the north-west and south-west 
corners, in imitation of an older design, 
which was superseded by pinnacles during a 
portion of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. 

STALLS. On a boss in the back of the 
Provost's stall there are the letters H. R. A. S. 
intertwined, and in the Vice-Provost's stall a 
27 



KING'S COLLEGE 



griffin, with the letters R. A. Both these 
emblems mark the time of Anne Boleyn. 

The stall work, however, was not completed 
along the north and south sides until the reign 
of Charles L, when Thomas Weaver, in 1633, 
gave the large coats of arms carved in elmwood 
which form the back of the stalls, together 
with the pilasters which form the framework. 

The canopies over the stalls and the panel 
work east of them were executed by Cornelius 
Austin (1675-1679). 

ALTAR AND RITUAL ARRANGEMENT. The 
present altar-piece is the fifth that has occu- 
pied the place. The first high altar, erected 
in 1545, was removed four years later on 
the publication of King Edward VI. 's first 
Prayer-book. A second of Caroline date was 
removed during the Civil Wars. Of a third 
a faint indication may be seen in Loggan's 
view of the interior of the chapel. The 
fourth altar was erected in 1770, by Mr. Essex, 
who at the same time continued the oak panel- 
ling on the north and south walls, and flanked 
the east window with two stone niches. 

But about 1870 a movement was set on 
foot for erecting a reredos and completing the 
east end generally. This led to the execution, 
under Mr. Garner, of a new altar table, con- 
sisting of a black marble slab, resting on carved 
alabaster supports, which was first used on 
Advent Sunday 1902 : the old altar table being 
removed to the south side. The reredos has 
been a more difficult question. The first de- 
sign of an elaborate carved stone Gothic screen 
had to be abandoned from lack of funds : then 
28 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 

the tapestried hangings, which are now in the 
College hall, were tried, but considered un- 
satisfactory, owing in part to the difficulty of 
matching them with the colours of the win- 
dows. The present design, which is now 
being tested in plaster, consists of Renaissance 
wood-work panels, with pairs of Corinthian 
columns, between which are to be three statues, 
of Our Lord and of the two patron saints of 
the foundation, Saints Mary and Nicholas. On 
the north has been placed the picture which 
formerly occupied the space behind the altar : 
The Deposition, by Daniele da Volterra. It 
was presented by Frederick, Earl of Carlisle, 
in 1780. 

The lectern, beautifully wrought in latten, 
the ordinary material of the old sepulchral 
" brasses," was the gift of Provost Hacumblen 
(1509-1526). 

PAVEMENT. Dr. Caius mentions, among 
the benefactions of Henry VIII. , a marble pave- 
ment, which was no doubt laid in the choir. 
Among the muniments are three receipts, 
amounting to 28, of moneys paid in 1547 
and the year following to John Bere, free- 
mason, for hewing, squaring, and polishing of 
marble stone. It was transferred to the ante- 
chapel in 1702, when the present choir pave- 
ment of English marble, in white and black 
squares, was set down. 

At the reception of Queen Elizabeth in 
1564, it is recorded that "the place between 
the north, south, and west doors of the Church 
was strewed with rushes, being not paved." 
This quarter never contained more than a strip 
29 



KING'S COLLEGE 



of pavement until the whole of the antechapel 
was repaved, in 1774, with the Portland stone 
which is now seen. Lord Godolphin, says the 
antiquary Cole, happened to enter the chapel 
while the alterations were going on and gener- 
ously subscribed an additional ^400. For this 
gift the Provost was desired by the College 
" to express their grateful Sense of it Immedi- 
ately, reserving the more solemn acknowledg- 
ment of it to the future meeting of the Society 
at their Sealing." 

There are two aggressors which threaten the 
safety of a beautiful building the hand of 
Time and the hand of Man. The latter, if 
more intermittent, is always more savage and 
unlovely in its assaults. From both, however, 
the chapel has been singularly immune. The 
stone-work, unlike the crumbling material of 
so many Oxford Colleges, is hard and has 
weathered well. Having survived to the age 
of systematic repair, it will suffer from nothing 
more catastrophic than the gradual wear of the 
material itself. 

The architects, although they failed to com- 
plete the founder's design, built nobly and 
lastingly in the one side which they carried 
out. Two small buildings, which must have 
been familiar to the attendants of the chapel 
service in the earlier centuries, are now gone ; 
but they were both of wood and never in- 
tended to be more than temporary. These 
were the Belfry and the Clock House. Five 
bells were sent by the founder : according to 
one tradition the gifts of Pope Calixtus III., 
according to another the spoil of a French 
30 



THE FOUNDER'S DESIGN 

convent after Agincourt. These, or rather 
a new set which soon replaced them, were 
kept until 1754, when they were sold, being 
cracked and useless, and the proceeds applied 
to the fund for Gibbs's building. During 
most of this time they were lodged in a wooden 
belfry to the west of the chapel, though to 
the east of the site on which the large Cam- 
panile of the cloisters, designed but never 
executed, was to have stood. The belfry 
was pulled down shortly before the bells were 
sold. 

The clock house, a wooden building with a 
tiled roof surmounted by a tapering spire, was 
placed at the north-east corner of the chapel, 
probably because the entrance to the College 
from Trumpington Street was then by a way 
which would now run between the chapel 
and the University Library. In 1817 it was 
removed in consequence of a College agree- 
ment " that the clock and pent house be taken 
down and sold, and the windows in that part 
of the chapel be replaced in statu quo" The 
clock is now in St. Giles' Church, Cambridge. 

To outsiders the pride of Kingsmen in 
their chapel may appear something sentimental. 
Yet for those who live continually beneath its 
shadows, this building, the sole survival of 
the great original design, is as the voice of 
the founder speaking from the past : " This 
is my meaning and my model for you ; build 
and think up to this." 



3 1 



Wjfc^ 





LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

FOR more than two hundred years the 
extent of College buildings remained the 
same the Old Court north of the Chapel, 
the Chapel itself, the Provost's Lodge and the 
Clerk's Lodgings adjoining it on the south-east. 
But at the beginning of the eighteenth century 
a movement was set on foot for completing 
the founder's quadrangle, of which the chapel 
was the northern side. This step was import- 
ant in the architectural history of the College. 
It changed the centre of College life from the 
northern to the southern side of the chapel. 
The building now to be erected, called Gibbs's 
buildings after the architect, was at first an out- 
post, but gradually became the centre of the 
King's of to-day. It sometimes startles the 
mind to reflect how different a picture was 
present to four centuries of Kingsmen from 
that which now meets the eye. 

The necessity of adding to the dreary and 
insufficient accommodation of Old Court had 
for some time been forcing itself on enter- 
prising Kingsmen. One of these, Lord Dart- 
mouth, wrote to Provost Copleston in 1686 
suggesting the establishment of a building fund, 
and promising his personal assistance. 

John Adams, the next Provost but one, took 

33 c 



KING'S COLLEGE 



up the scheme with energy. It was agreed to 
start the fund with money to be obtained from 
the sale of the timber of Toft Monks Wood 
in Norfolk. The surplus, after providing for 
the repairs necessitated by a recent fire in the 
Old Court, was solemnly devoted to the new 
scheme. "If any member of the said Col- 
lege," the agreement runs, "shall be so wicked 
as to propose or promote the finding or apply- 
ing to any other use or purpose whatsoever 
(unless in case of fire, which God forbid) either 
the said money or any other that shall rise from 
the selling of timber which shall be found upon 
any of the College Estates, we will discover 
and oppose him to the utmost of our power." 

The provision of means having been arranged, 
no time was lost in obtaining plans. The Pro- 
vost had an interview with Sir Christopher 
Wren at the house of Mr. Nicholas Hawkes- 
more, a pupil of the latter, and an architect of 
some reputation. After a preliminary discus- 
sion Hawkesmore presented plans and models, 
which had been prepared at Sir Christopher 
Wren's, and which therefore must have had 
his sanction. The two models are now in the 
Muniment Room. He proposed not only to 
complete the Quadrangle (with arcades) to the 
south of the chapel, but also to build a -Cloister 
and Bell Tower to the west ; to continue the 
old line of King's Lane to the river ; to place 
a new Provost's Lodge on one side of it, and 
on the other a brewhouse and stables. The 
plans also included bridges and gardens. Upon 
this model for the east and west sides of 
the Court the Provost had certain criticisms 
34 



LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

to offer. The ornamentation was excessive. 
The six disengaged columns flanking the cen- 
tral porticoes lacked proportion with the rest 
of the building. The studies on the west side 
were lighted by small oblong windows looking 
on to the Court, instead of facing the river, 
as was eventually the arrangement in Gibbs's 
building. Last, but not least, it was too costly. 
" The most expensive part will be ye cloyster, 
but it is ye hardest for Mr. Hawkesmoor to 
Part withal." 

Why this plan was not adopted is unknown. 
A few years later Provost Adams, who had 
been the centre of enthusiasm, died, and the 
scheme languished for ten years until a new 
architect was found in James Gibbs, who erected 
the building that bears his name. Like the 
chapel, Gibbs's building is only a part of a 
larger design that was never carried out, and 
the faults, if there be any, are due to this 
circumstance rather than to any defect in the 
architect's work. Three separate blocks of 
buildings were to complete the front Court, 
the south building being the exact length of 
the series of the side chapels opposite, while 
the east and west sides were a little longer. 
The style adopted was the Italian, then in 
fashion, and the whole design would have 
been an excellent specimen of it, as the plates 
of what was intended and the portions built 
testify. The architect thus describes the por- 
tion erected and the arrangements for the rest 
of the design : 

" It is built of Portland stone, and is detached 
from the Chapel as being a different kind of 
35 



KING'S COLLEGE 



building, and also to prevent damage by any 
accident of fire. . . . The College, as designed, 
will consist of Four sides, viz. The Chapel, 
a beautiful Building, of the Gothick taste, but 
the finest I ever saw ; opposite to which is 
proposed the Hall with a Portico. On one 
side of the Hall is to be the Provost's Lodge, 
with proper Apartments. On the other side 
are the Buttry, Kitchen, &c. In the West 
Side fronting the river now built are twenty- 
four Apartments, each consisting of three rooms 
and a vaulted Cellar. The East Side is to con- 
tain the like number of Apartments." Some 
statuary designed for the adornment of the 
western building, including a recumbent figure 
on each slope of the pediments of the portico, 
had to be omitted from lack of means. 

Although the funds were not sufficient for 
the whole of Gibbs's design, the College de- 
termined to begin the work at once. The 
first stone was laid on 25th of March 1723. 
After service in the chapel, the Provost (Dr. 
Snape, at this time Vice-Chancellor), accom- 
panied by the noblemen, heads of Colleges, 
Doctors, and other members of the University, 
proceeded to the corner of the foundation, 
next the chapel, and performed the ceremony. 
The inscription on the stone is in Latin, and 
gives the traditional history of the block itself. 
It translates as follows : 

"Student of Antiquity, who one day, in 
searching the ruins of this building, mayst 
perchance bring to light this plate enclosed in 
stone, know that in the time of Henry VI. the 
block was destined for the fabric of this College. 
36 



LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

Civil disturbance first, afterwards the shameful 
death of that most noble king, long delayed 
the unfinished work, and for nearly three 
centuries, if tradition is true, it has lain in 
the adjacent space half-sawn ; now, at last, on 
the 25th day of March, in the 1 724th year of 
salvation, and loth of the reign of his most 
excellent majesty King George, the work has 
been resumed under new auspices, and that 
stone which found no place in the previous 
structure has become the foundation-stone of 
the west side of the great court. The con- 
tributions of the College itself to this work, the 
additional assistance afforded to it, the names of 
its patrons, these things, solemn commemor- 
ation and written record, more lasting than 
this bronze, will disclose to posterity." 

The building, which occupied six years, 
exhausted the funds, so that the cost of the 
wainscotting and fittings, which were done by 
Mr. Essex, had to be met by loans from other 
colleges, room-rents charged to the fellows, and 
the sale of the old chapel bells. The debt 
was eventually extinguished by a bequest from 
Mr. Hungerford, who left to the College his 
property of Upavon in Wiltshire. 

For a long while after its completion, Gibbs's 
building was not a favourite with Kingsmen. 
Cole writing in 1750 remarks that, though the 
College had certainly needed more accom- 
modation, and the building itself was a great 
ornament to the University, yet the rents 
charged were so burdensome that "ever since 
I have inhabited the new building, now about 
sixteen years, not half of the rooms have been 

37 



KING'S COLLEGE 



let ; but the fellows choose rather to inhabit 
the old building, where they pay nothing for 
their chambers, and are nearer the hall, and 
within reach of the bedmakers and servants ; 
the distance from which makes the new 
building very inconvenient, besides the new 
apartments are so sumptuous and grand that 
it requires more than the narrow appointment 
of a Fellow of the College to fit them up in 
such a manner as would become them." It 
is even said that the buildings were used by 
the dons as stables for their horses. It is 
certainly true that not so long ago one student 
here kept fowls in his rooms. 

Charles Simeon lived in this building during 
his long residence at King's ; first in the 
southern rooms on the ground floor of the 
staircase farthest from the chapel, and after- 
wards in the set above the central archway 
with a large semicircular window looking 
towards the town (the present Vice-Provost's 
rooms). The iron rail may still be seen which 
in his old age was placed on the staircase to 
assist him in the long ascent. It is known as 
" The Saint's Rest." 

Another century passed away before the 
quadrangle, twice fully designed and twice 
stayed at the completion of a single side, was 
finished in 1828 by William Wilkins, after 
consultations with a committee of architects. 
His work, executed in Rutland stone, consists 
first of the Screen and Porter's Lodge on the 
east, and of the Hall, flanked by dwelling- 
rooms on the south ; secondly, of the Library 
and present Provost's Lodge, which are a 
38 



LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

continuation of the southern wing of the 
quadrangle westwards towards the river. The 
architects, abandoning the Italian model of 
Gibbs, adopted a Gothic style, and succeeded 
in filling a large area somewhat wastefully. 

As usual, the original plan differed in certain 
respects from the subsequent execution. There 
was to have been a cloister behind the screen, 
which would have formed an independent mass 
of building separated from the Chapel on the 
north, and the Hall range on the south by 
gateways ; a second Fellows' Garden would 
have occupied the angle between Trumpington 
Street and King's Lane (the site of Scott's 
building) ; the Library would have stood at 
right angles to the Hall at its west end ; and 
lastly, the Provost's Lodge would have been 
separated from the remainder of the range by 
a Cloister occupying the site of the present 
library. But the most interesting of the 
omitted items was an addendum to Wilkins's 
plans as finally accepted by the College : 
" Agreed that when the above contract shall 
be completely executed, the Provost be hereby 
authorised to enter into another Contract with 
any person or persons he may think fit to 
Gothicise Gibbs's Building, according to plan 
originally proposed by Mr. Wilkins." This 
wonderful conception was never executed. 

Wilkins's Gothic was characterised by an 
exaggerated symmetry, which took the form 
of " two of everything." There was to be a 
gate at each end of the screen. The one on 
the south for the admission of carriages ; the 
other on the north a dummy. In the Hall 

39 



KING'S COLLEGE 



were two galleries and two lanterns (the latter 
by special decree of the College). There were 
also to have been two oriel windows. The 
general design of the Hall was derived from 
Crosby Hall, London. 

The growth of the College consequent on 
the reformation of its constitution in 1862 
necessitated further building. The site chosen 
was the space between the new King's Lane 
and the south-eastern block of Wilkins's 
buildings. The old lane described in Wilkins's 
time, "as a detestable and filthy alley, nowhere 
more than thirteen feet in breadth, and near 
its entrance in Trumpington Street not quite 
ten feet," started from the same place as the 
present one at its western extremity, but so 
much inclined to the north in its eastward 
course that it entered Trumpington Street at 
a point about seventy feet to the north of the 
opening of the present lane. The College, 
therefore, in 1823, having negotiated for the 
purchase of all the houses in the old lane 
not already belonging to it, built the new lane 
and enclosed the vacant space. But Mr. 
Cory, the proprietor of the house fronting 
Trumpington Street the old residence of 
John Canterbury, which had been presented 
to St. Catharine's College by Dr. Wodelarke, 
its founder suddenly raised his price to so 
exorbitant a height, that the acquisition of 
the frontal building became, for the time 
being, impossible ; and accordingly the court 
at the back of Wilkins's buildings was made 
twenty-two feet narrower than had been in- 
tended. 

40 



LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

However, in 1869 the house was bought 
from Mr. Cory's executors for 4000, and 
demolished along with the eastern entrance of 
the old lane, which had been left to suit Mr. 
Cory's convenience. In 1871 the buildings 
known as Scott's building were begun by 
Sir G. G. Scott, and the court at the back 




ORIEL, FROM KING'S LANE 



was named " Chetwynd " Court, after Walter 
Chetwynd, a senior fellow, who left a legacy 
for building purposes, which was used in great 
part to defray the ensuing costs. 

In 1876 the apartments on the south side of 
King's Lane, which had been built in flats for 
the College servants, were fitted up as rooms 
for undergraduates. 

41 



KING'S COLLEGE 



But the College was now growing fast, and 
extensions on a larger scale were necessary. 
Two rival schemes were put forward, one for 
the purchase of the Bull Hotel, the other for 
the substitution of a range of buildings in the 
place of Wilkins's Screen, as had been the de- 
sign in earlier times both of the founder and 
of James Gibbs. Both plans, however, came 
to nothing. The first, which would have been 
a profitable investment for the College finan- 
cially, through the veto of the Copyhold Com- 
missioners ; the second through the withdrawal 
at the critical moment of its supporters. Almost 
in despair negotiations were opened for amal- 
gamation with St. Catharine's College, which 
owed its foundation to a Provost of King's. 
But the lesser college, perhaps fearing absorp- 
tion, declined. 

For the next few years large schemes were 
abandoned, but in 1883 Mr. Fawcett was com- 
missioned to build a lecture room and a few 
sets of chambers opposite Scott's buildings on 
the west side of the Chetwynd Court. In this, 
the first regular lecture room built in King's, 
Dr. Westcott, then professorial fellow of the 
College, delivered an inaugural address on 
October 13, 1885. In early days the Chapel, 
the Hall, the Library, and even Fellows' rooms, 
had been used for the purpose. A further 
lecture room has since been added by the 
appropriation of the back drawing-room of 
the Provost's Lodge, which had in Provost 
Thackeray's days been used by the College as 
its audit room. 

In 1889 the big building scheme was at last 
42 



LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

carried through, but the site was altogether 
different from that of earlier proposals. On 
the plot of ground, which had been the kitchen 
garden of the Provost's Lodge, facing the river, 
two wings of a three-sided court designed by 
Mr. G. F. Bodley were built with Lin- 
colnshire stone at a cost of ^30,000. The 
completion of the third side is not at present 
contemplated, perhaps from reluctance to de- 
stroy the fine row of elms which occupies 
the site, or from apprehensions of being unable 
to improve upon an effect which is admittedly 
very attractive. Building extension in the im- 
mediate future will probably take place in the 
neighbourhood of the old stables, at the south- 
east side of the Provost's Lodge, where King's 
and Queens' Lanes meet. 

The history of the buildings reflects in an 
instructive way the history of the society. 
The King's of more than four centuries a 
small court, crouching beneath the over- 
towering chapel, the ever-present witness of 
the founder's great design ; and living within 
that court the small society, exclusive, familiar, 
not undistinguished, yet always threatening to 
fall short of the educational ideal entrusted to 
them. The King's of to-day, a strange and 
unknown dwelling to those Kingsmen of 
earlier ages, save where on the then south, 
now north, the great chapel stands, a 
cherished link between old and new, trans- 
mitting the memory of the closer past to the 
wider keeping of the open future, at once 
urging forward and pointing back, bidding to 
greater things, yet reminding of the source 

43 



KING'S COLLEGE 



whence the conception came ; each building 
within the College area the work of a different 
age, as much an earnest of intention as a record 
of achievement. The old dwellings gone, the 
new unfinished ; more than half the chambers 
less than four decades old. It is the picture of 
an ancient foundation, newly, almost hurriedly 
roused to discharge the wider duties of the 
present. 

The College grounds to-day naturally con- 
trast in appearance with those of two centuries 
ago. Just as the beginning of modern King's 
is marked by Gibbs's work in the buildings, so 
also it is marked in the grounds by the laying 
down of the two great lawns, which Gibbs's 
buildings separate. 

Up to the middle of the eighteenth century 
there was a clear space from the eastern border 
of the College to the river, broken only by 
avenues of trees and small enclosures for 
gardens. The whole of the ground was called 
" Church Yard " or " Chapel Yard," and 
the portion nearest the river " Le Grene," 
the total area being about the same as at 
the present day. 

In the year 1580 an avenue of trees had 
been planted along the way which led from 
Queens' Lane gate to the west door of the 
chapel, on the ground now occupied by Gibbs's 
buildings. This cut Chapel Yard into the two 
halves, which now form the front and back 
courts. At right angles to this avenue ran a 
second across the middle of the back court, at 
the end of which stood the old bridge, erected 
by George Tompson in 1627, "of the best 
44 



LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

and most durable freestone." : It was a pictur- 
esque structure of two spans, with an arch on 
the College side closed by a gate and surmounted 
by a tiled coping. On the far side of the Cam 
the central avenue was continued on a raised 
causeway till it reached the west ditch at Field's 
Gate, which was provided with a wooden bridge. 
The remnants of the causeway and avenue still 
remain, the two mounds and clumps of trees in 
the centre. The few great elms stand, bent 
and rather lonely, sighing for their former state- 
liness, when they were part of the great central 
avenue of King's, which extended from the 
field gate to the site of Gibbs's building. On 
the south side of the mound the ground is still 
very muddy churned indeed into mud on some 
damp afternoons in the Lent term. Here in 
the old "grove," in earlier times, was a pond 
with an island, which was later drained and 
converted into an orchard. The ground on 
the north was a meadow, used for the pasture 
of the College horses, and sometimes called 
" The geldinges close." The whole was 
later named the Scholars' Piece, as belonging 
to them, rather than to the Provost or 
Fellows. 

In the middle of the eighteenth century 
began the change to the present form. 

1 I have here followed J. W. Clark. Cooper, however, 
in his " Annals of Cambridge," vol. iii. p. 341, suggests 
that in the year 1642-3, when Cambridge was fortified, 
King's College bridge was destroyed, and he gives as his 
authority, "Querela Cantabrigiensis." In this case the 
bridge taken down in 1819 must have been put up in the 
latter half of the ijth century. (Cf. White's "Cambridge 
Visitors' Guide," p. 76, where 1672 is assigned as the 
precise date.) 

45 



KING'S COLLEGE 



The two great lawns were laid down, first in 
the front Court, in "the upper part of the 
Chapell Yard," afterwards in the back Court, 
where the gardens were removed and the 
avenues cut down. 

By the year 1818 the old bridge was 
deemed by the surveyor to be " in such a 
ruinous state that in all probability it will 
soon fall into the river and impede the navi- 
gation." The bridge was therefore rebuilt, 
not in the old position according to the ori- 
ginal intention, but at the suggestion of the 
Rev. Charles Simeon, in its present position, 
in a line with the avenue planted some sixty 
years previously, on the south side of the back 
lawn. At the same time the avenue was con- 
tinued on the west bank, and gates erected at 
the point where it abutted on the road. These 
are the Avenue and Gateway which are now 
seen. On the other side of the road is the 
Fellows' Garden, which was laid out about the 
middle of last century, and beyond this the 
Cricket Grounds, held in joint ownership with 
Clare College. 

The bridge of Fifeshire stone, with its single 
span of 55 feet, of simple yet sufficient design, 
is not the least attractive of the bridges along 
the Backs. 

In 1879, on the same day on which the 
west window of the chapel was consecrated, 
the fountain in the front Court was opened. 
The work, done in stone and bronze from the 
design of Mr. Armstead, follows the resolution 
of the College for a " bronze figure upon a 
base out of which a fountain or conduit should 
46 



LATER BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

flow." The figure is of the founder " gently " 
offering the charter, with Religion and Philo- 
sophy on either side of the pedestal the one 
holding a model of the chapel upon a closed 
book, the other reading an unfolded scroll. 
The soft Portland stone, used in the basin 
and foundation of the main structure, suffered 
so severely from the effects of frost and water, 
that it was replaced two years ago, through 
the generosity of a senior Fellow, by a harder 
granite. The founder gazes on the screen 
and Porter's Lodge. His own quadrangle 
is not. 



47 



Lectern and Choirs 





THE STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER AND 
THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION 

THE Statutes under which the College 
was governed for a period of more 
than four hundred years, were issued at the 
direction of King Henry VI. in the year 
1443. The College was then three years 
old. In the year 1440, William Millington, 
a fellow of Clare Hall, had been installed 
by the king as Rector over a College of 
twelve scholars, which was to take the name 
of St. Nicholas, the natal saint of Henry VI. 
This was the provision of the first original 
Charter of the College, bearing the date of 
February 12, 1440. During this time the 
College was unconnected with Eton, which 
indeed was not founded until October 1 1, 1440. 
The work of drawing up the Statutes was 
entrusted originally to three Commissioners, 
including John Langton, the Chancellor of 
the University. They did not, however, per- 
form the task imposed upon them, probably 
because they disapproved, the Chancellor in 
particular, of the peculiar position which King 
Henry had determined his College should 
occupy in Cambridge. The Statutes, there- 
fore, were drawn up directly under the royal 
supervision. The king modelled his larger 

49 D 



KING'S COLLEGE 



foundation on William of Wykeham's New 
College at Oxford, receiving, it is conjectured, 
the direct assistance of William of Wayn- 
flete, an old Wykehamist and second Provost of 
Eton. What New College was to Win- 
chester College, King Henry's foundation at 
Cambridge was to be to the twin foundation 
which he was establishing at Eton, near 
Windsor. The scholars of the latter, when 
sufficiently instructed in the rudiments of 
grammar, were to be transferred for further 
and permanent study to his Cambridge Col- 
lege, which was henceforth to take the double 
title of Our Lady and St. Nicholas. Con- 
sequently, at the present day the College 
celebrates two founder's days 25th March, 
the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, who was the patron saint of Eton 
College ; and the 6th December, St. Nicholas 1 
Day, which had been adopted as the 
founder's day three years before. In view 
of this change a second charter was issued, 
superseding the first, and dated I2th July 

1443- 

The connection between King's and Eton 

is emblazoned on the coats of arms. The 
small foundation of 1440 had neither seal 
nor arms. But in 1443 seals were engraven 
for the two colleges. The seal for King's 
College had in base a shield blazoned as 
follows : Sable a mitre pierced by a crozier, 
between two lily flowers proper : a chief per 
pale azure, with a fleur-de-lis of France and 
gules a lion of England. The lilies were 
for Our Lady, the mitre and crozier for St. 
50 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

Nicholas the patron saints of King's Col- 
lege. That for Eton College was similar, 
with the exception of a third lily flower in 
place of the mitre and crozier. In both the 
founder is represented by the chief, derived 
from the Royal Arms. The Royal patents 
of 1448, which authorised the two colleges 
to bear arms confirmed the arms on the Eton 
seal, but substituted in the case of King's 




THE COLLEGE ARMS 

perhaps in order to avoid confusion with Eton 
three silver roses for the mitre and crozier : 
" The grace of a maturer growth for the 
purity of simple innocence," the late Bishop 
Westcott said. 

The Statutes, which are elaborated in great 
detail, contain many provisions that would be 
common to any collegiate foundation of that 
day, but they present in addition two points of 
peculiarity. First, of course, was the connec- 
51 



KING'S COLLEGE 



tion with Eton. The foundation was to con- 
sist of seventy students, from the youngest 
scholar to the oldest fellow, with a Provost 
at their head, recruited entirely from Eton. 
This figure excludes the choristers and clerks 
of the choir, who were only members of the 
foundation in a subordinate sense. It was 
strictly ordained that the number should be 
maintained at seventy, neither more nor less, 
though the latter contingency had to be 
guarded against the more carefully. Each 
year the Provost, accompanied by two of 
the fellows, was to proceed to Eton for the 
purpose of filling up the vacancies on the 
foundation. With the assistance of the chief 
College authorities there, they were to con- 
duct the election impartially and without re- 
gard for the wishes of prince or prelate. The 
boys they were to select were to be " poor, 
needy, graced with good manners and con- 
ditions, fit for study, and of honourable con- 
versations, adequately instructed ' in reading, 
plain song, and Donatus.' " They must not 
be illegitimate, suffering from incurable disease, 
from any " mutilationem membrorum enor- 
mem," or any defect that might unfit them 
for taking Holy Orders. The founder evi- 
dently intended the selection of the worthiest 
members of Eton. 

The future before a selected scholar was far 
different from what it is to-day. It was an 
assured livelihood. The scholar of Eton pro- 
ceeded to King's, there to continue perma- 
nently and more fully the studies he had 
begun at school. For the first three years 
52 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

of his University life he remained a scholar ; 
when this period of probation was over, he 
became a full member of the foundation 
a fellow. If he had not yet attained 
his first bachelor's degree, he was for some 
short time an undergraduate fellow. For 
the status of fellow, though it was reached 
about the same time as that of bachelor, was 
in no way connected with it. A scholar 
became a fellow after having passed his three 
years of probation to the satisfaction of the 
College ; an undergraduate became a graduate 
by passing the examination conducted in Col- 
lege by the College authorities, and not, as in 
all other colleges, by the University in the 
University schools. There was, therefore, on 
the foundation the broad division into scholars 
who were probationary fellows, and full fellows 
who had passed through the period of probation. 
But, as between fellows, their standing in the 
University made a difference. There were 
Undergraduate Fellows, Fellows B.A., who 
attained their first degree of Bachelor of Arts, 
and Fellows M.A., who had reached as Master 
of Arts a full Graduate position. The govern- 
ing body consisted of all the fellows of B.A. 
standing and upwards ; eligibility thus depended 
on the attainment of the first University de- 
gree. But within this governing body the 
thirteen senior members of the foundation 
formed an inner circle, to which they suc- 
ceeded by seniority, as regulated by the 
Statutes. These were the senior fellows. 
The remaining fellows on the governing 
body, whether of B.A. or M.A. standing, 

53 



KING'S COLLEGE 



were the junior fellows ; junior fellows be- 
came senior fellows in order of seniority as 
vacancies occurred. 

From among the senior fellows were selected 
the governing officials : the Vice-Provost, who 
performed the Provost's functions in the latter's 
absence ; the three Deans, who attended to 
the discipline of the College one, the senior, 
learned in divinity, the others at least graduate 
therein ; and three Bursars, who supervised the 
commissariat and College finance. Above all 
stood the Provost, with large, almost autocratic 
power. 

Although the constitution of College govern- 
ment was not greatly dissimilar from that which 
prevails to-day, the nature of the discipline and 
regulation discloses the full severity of mediaeval 
monasticism. All members of the College 
took deacon's orders ; most became priests. 
Some few clerks, not more than ten, were 
allowed to substitute for theology the secular 
studies of law (canon or civil), medicine, and 
astronomy. Except in these few cases, the 
failure to take priest's orders was punished by 
expulsion from the society. 

Daily attendance at the chapel services, daily 
lectures, beginning at six, a strict routine of 
study tested by a weekly examination, were 
the lot of every scholar ; and even those of 
higher standing were bound to many duties. 
The meals were taken together in the hall, the 
company listening in silence to the reading of 
scripture ; if they did converse it was in Latin. 
The College not only boarded and lodged its 
members, it also clothed them, cut their hair 
54 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

and shaved them. Scholars and fellows were 
forbidden to sell or pawn their clothes till they 
had worn them for two years ; but after the 
first year they might give them away to mem- 
bers of the society whose own suits had come 
to a premature decay. The College porters 
trimmed the hair and cut the beards of all the 
society, for a profusion of hair was thought in 
those days to be inconsistent alike with the 
academical and clerical profession. Athletics 
met with equal discouragement. No scholar 
or fellow, chaplain or clerk, or other officer 
might keep dogs, ferrets, or hawks, or throw, 
play, or shoot within or without the College. 
Moreover, when the scholars went outside the 
College gates, they were not to go alone or 
discard their academical dress ; and before they 
could take a walk into the country, leave of the 
Provost and Dean was necessary. Poverty 
probably kept them at Cambridge, but they 
might enjoy a vacation of two months in the 
course of the year, so long as not more than 
twenty of the whole number of seventy were 
absent at the same time. Even when out of 
residence they were bound to dress like "clerks" 
and forbidden to frequent either taverns or 
public spectacles. 

The same pious solicitude, which sought to 
secure orderliness by the assured connection 
with Eton and by the vigorous discipline of 
monastic rules, was exercised to preserve it 
unimpaired from outside interference. First 
of all, with the support of a Papal Bull from 
Eugenius IV., 1445, the foundation of the 
King's College was endowed with exceptional 
55 



KING'S COLLEGE 



religious privileges. The members were ex- 
cused all parish duties, whether of service or 
money ; and even when the town was under 
interdict all the sacraments might be per- 
formed in the College chapel. But more im- 
portant than this, the visitorial functions were 
vested, not in the Bishop of Ely, in whose 
diocese Cambridge lay and in whom all the 
other colleges found their ecclesiastical super- 
visor, but in the Bishop of Lincoln, whose 
diocese at that time extended far enough south 
to include Eton in the county of Buckingham- 
shire. Moreover, the office was not, as in the 
case of Eton, shared with the Archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

Secondly, the College was exempted from the 
ordinary jurisdiction of the Chancellor. This 
grant of an imperium in imperlo was not ob- 
tained without a considerable struggle. But 
by a composition between the Chancellor and 
the Provost, arranged in 1457, the independent 
jurisdiction was confirmed and defined. From 
interpretations it is clear that this independ- 
ence was not absolute. The College could only 
decide on matters arising within its own pre- 
cincts, such as the indiscipline of a turbulent 
undergraduate or the shortcomings of a dis- 
honest bursar. In the wider sphere of Uni- 
versity relations, the University jurisdiction still 
prevailed. 

For the future of the College, it was not of 
primary importance whether its spiritual over- 
lord came from Lincoln or Ely, whether the 
little offences of College life were punished by 
the College Council or the Vice-Chancellor's 
56 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

Court, but from these exemptions in the fields 
of ecclesiastical government and civil jurisdic- 
tion grew up, in the third place, an educational 
exemption by which the Kingsmen proceeded 
to the B. A. degree without passing a University 
examination. It is not clear that this exemp- 
tion was intended by the founder ; for, while 
probability points this way, the evidence points 
the opposite. Since King's College was clearly 
modelled on New College, Oxford, and New 
College is known some time after its foundation 
to have held the same privilege of degree with- 
out examination, it seems only reasonable to 
conjecture that King Henry borrowed this 
along with the other privileges and incorporated 
it definitely in the College constitution ; and 
moreover, since such a grant of privilege must 
have been at any time irksome to the University 
authorities, they might have yielded unwillingly 
to a royal and pious benefactor what they cer- 
tainly would have refused to the College officials 
of later times or even to later kings. But the 
evidence militates against this view. First, it 
is not improbable that the privilege of New 
College was itself of after growth, so that in 
1446 there was no model for Henry VI. to 
imitate. Secondly, not only is there no men- 
tion of such an exemption in the statutes and 
documents of King Henry VI., which settle 
the relations between the College and the 
University, but on the contrary there is direct 
provision for participation in the scholastic 
disputations, which were at that time the 
avenue to the B.A. degree. The settlement, 
however, of the exact date at which the 

57 



KING'S COLLEGE 



custom was introduced is chiefly a matter of 
antiquarian interest. The practice was cer- 
tainly of ancient standing, and lasted to the 
middle of the nineteenth century. It is diffi- 
cult to feel very doubtful about the goodness or 




THE CHAPEL AT SUNSET 

badness of the results. The routine of Uni- 
versity graduation may have been cumbersome, 
as the matter of the disputation was often 
meaningless, yet it was a test and stimulus to 
exertion in a manner however imperfect. 
And although the exempted Kingsmen, 
58 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

freed from a routine of intellectual study, 
might have nourished unobstructed the ten- 
derer growth of a finer learning, it is to be 
feared they discovered the evil of exemption 
rather than the good, and stagnated in idle- 
ness below the normal standard of University 
culture more often than they lifted them- 
selves to a higher ideal eminent above their 
neighbours. 

Privilege and straitness of discipline do not 
conduce to an elasticity of constitution ; and 
the royal founder to some extent defeated his 
own ends by the excessive elaboration of his 
provisions. His College, so far from realising 
his ideal of an earnest society, devoted to 
religion and research, and preserved by his 
liberality from material want and secular 
worry, was notorious for the frequency and 
acrimony of its quarrels among its own 
members, with the allied foundation of 
Eton, and with the University in general. 
And yet throughout these vicissitudes the 
constitutional peculiarities of the College 
were preserved with singularly little change. 
The monastic element, as in other colleges, 
passed gradually away, but King's remained, 
as its founder intended, privileged and exclu- 
sive. 

The integrity of the Statutes was from time 
to time threatened in two different ways, from 
without and from within. First of all, Kings- 
men stubbornly resisted any attempt to impose 
on them aliens from other colleges or uni- 
versities or to force them in their elections 
from Eton College, although it would seem 

59 



KING'S COLLEGE 



they occasionally exercised the right, as in the 
case of George Day, John Cheke, and Ben- 
jamin Whichcote, of inviting outsiders into 
their body on their own initiative. Contrary 
to the practice of its great neighbour Trinity 
College, the election of the Provost of King's 
was vested in the whole body of fellows and 
not in the Crown. Up to the revolution of 
1689 this right was hardly more than a conge 
d'e/ire. The Crown nominated and on more 
than one occasion secured the resignation of 
the Provost. But when in 1689 King William 
III. endeavoured to impose on the College a 
liberal Provost, who had declared boldly for 
thoroughness of religious toleration, the College 
revived its dormant rights by rejecting the 
royal nominee. The king, anxious for the 
acquiescence of the College, substituted the 
more illustrious name of Sir Isaac Newton. 
But not even the genius and virtue of Cam- 
bridge's greatest scholar could overcome the 
roused orthodoxy of the College, which pre- 
ferred Mr. Roderick, of Eton College, who 
was neither a doctor nor in orders. Having 
hastily repaired these deficiencies in their candi- 
date, the College appealed boldly against the 
royal command and collected funds for the 
threatened lawsuit. The Attorney-General 
urged the indubitable precedents for royal 
elections. But the College disputant, John 
Layton, a deaf and purblind tutor, was un- 
convinced. Queen Mary happened to enter 
as he was speaking, but Layton, neither hearing 
nor seeing, smote the table forcibly with his 
hand and cried, " Mr. Attorney-General, if we 
60 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

must bear the grievances of former reigns then 
indeed is the king in vain come in." Bold- 
ness won the day, and shortly after the king, 
in the company of the Chancellor, announced 
to the fellows in the College chapel " that the 
man they had chosen should be their Provost." 
To some of later generations it seemed a 
Pyrrhic victory, the loss of a golden chance of 
escaping from that exclusive isolation which 
Lord Macaulay has termed the College's 
" degrading fate." 

Ready as it was to resent breaches of its 
rights from outside, the College was not so 
inclined itself to observe faithfully the duties 
imposed on it by the founder. And " quis 
custodiet ipsos custodes ? " King Henry de- 
signed his College for the study of theology by 
poor students in permanent residence. The 
society in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies was continually tending to become a 
College of fellows, some habitually absentees, 
few poor in the founders meaning of the word, 
many permanently laymen, with the exception 
of those who were either specially interested in 
theological studies, or had material ends in the 
shape of privileges attached to Divinity degrees 
or College livings. In the earlier times mem- 
bers forfeited their fellowship on becoming 
possessed of an income exceeding five marks 
annual value. But in the seventeenth cen- 
tury the slender wealth limit was passed with 
impunity, until its exceeding became unnoticed 
as a grievance. So, too, with the absentee 
fellows. The fellowships became so valuable 
that the Kingsmen aspired to retain them 
61 



KING'S COLLEGE 



even when they went permanently out of 
residence. In 1674 the junior fellows pro- 
tested against the payments to senior absentees 
of funds which bore the name of fees for 
the transaction of College business. But 
absenteeism triumphed, with the result that 
by the beginning of the nineteenth century 
a fellowship at King's was as likely to be 
the profitable investment of a well-to-do 
gentleman as the slender emolument of a 
residing clerk. 

Again, by an extension upon, rather than 
a violation of the Founder's Statutes, the sons 
of the rich or the noble came to be admitted as 
fellow commoners, that is, as undergraduates 
not on the foundation, and not therefore en- 
titled to fellowships. Their number was not 
allowed to exceed twelve. As early as the 
reign of Elizabeth, strict rules were laid down, 
regulating the amount of their dues, the nature 
of the entrance-test, and their rank in chapel 
and in hall. In the reign of Elizabeth, also, 
there is mention of undergraduate members, 
known as " scholar commoners," who were 
either collegers of Eton waiting for vacancies 
in the King's Scholarships, or students of the 
same class as fellow commoners, but not rich 
enough to pay the same scale of fees. At Eton 
there arose in a similar way a class of " com- 
mensales " who grew into the hundreds of 
Oppidans of a later day, but at King's the 
scholar commoners disappeared by the end of 
the seventeenth century, and while correspond- 
ing in many respects to the pensioners of to-day, 
are not their lineal ancestors. Finally, there 
62 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

were the poor scholars, the servitors or " sizars " 
of other colleges, who resided out of College 
and paid for their university education by 
attendance on the senior fellows. 

Hence, during the greater part of the 
College's history four classes of students existed 
in the College : the scholars and fellows of 
the foundation, the fellow commoners, the 
scholar commoners, and the poor scholars. 
But at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century the fellow commoners and poor 
scholars disappeared, as had the scholar com- 
moners a century earlier; so that in 1841, 
only twenty years before the opening of the 
College to the outside student, King's was a 
small society of thirty residents, twenty graduate 
fellows, and ten undergraduate scholars, while 
the remainder of the seventy were absentees, 
enjoying the emoluments for which they did 
no service in the College. The total of the 
society was that prescribed by the founder, the 
method of their living in many cases hardly 
so. 

It is sometimes forgotten that a College of 
Oxford or Cambridge is at once a large land- 
owner, with rights and duties in different 
quarters of the country, and a body of students 
absorbed, if not in study, at any rate in un- 
commercial pursuits. Yet the difficulty of 
combining the dual function has been no small 
one in the history of King's. Unlike the univer- 
sities of recent foundation, whose revenues are 
received from State grants or the transferred in- 
vestments of private benefactors, the old colleges 
are the lineal heirs of the monasteries, the 

63 



KING'S COLLEGE 



most extensive of -ancient landowners. Their 
possessions are of two kinds estates, and the 
advowsons to Church livings. With the first, 
King's was peculiarly well endowed by its 
founder. The reign of Henry VI. marks the 
disappearance of the close connection between 
England and France, and consequently the alien 
priories, the rents of which had been trans- 
mitted to the Abbey of Bee, in Normandy, 
and other French foundations, were confiscated 
and employed for religious purposes at home. 
These were the sources out of which Henry 
endowed his new College of King's, and they 
form the bulk of the College estates to-day. 
They are chiefly in the east and south of 
England. 

The founder did not intend that the duties 
of the landlord should be lightly undertaken. 
Each year the Provost, attended by a fellow of 
the College, had to make a round of the estates, 
inspecting the live-stock and warning the 
bailiffs and tenants to send in all moneys due 
to them, so as to be ready for the audit. 
To-day the undergraduate may ponder thought- 
fully over the proprietary responsibilities of his 
society, when he sips the annual cup of audit 
ale. 

Not infrequently in the College history the 
most important part of the year's work was a 
squabble over the sum to be divided among 
the fellows ; sometimes, it is to be feared, the 
revenues which should have promoted the study 
of learning were diverted to greedy pockets. 
On the whole, however, the College was a 
good landlord ; and in the land reform of the 
64 



STATUTES OF THE FOUNDER 

nineteenth century King's, backward in other 
respects, took the lead. Copyholds, which 
practically made the tenant half-owner with 
the landlord, and which were wasteful when 
the means of communication improved, began 
to be replaced by leaseholds, although even at 
the present day the transformation is not yet 
completed ; and the common fields, with their 
slovenly cultivation, were economically en- 
closed. In 1798 the College effected this 
latter reform on its adjacent estates in Grant- 
chester and Coton. Though the College, like 
all other landed proprietors, has suffered severely 
from the fall in agricultural land, it is still one 
of the richest of the Cambridge foundations. 

The second kind of property, the advowsons 
to livings, are either the original presentations 
of the founder, or have accrued through the 
legacies of private benefactors or the invest- 
ment by the College of the surplus revenues 
from its estates. In 1702 and 1781 the most 
important additions were made. When the life 
of the society was predominantly ecclesias- 
tical, this form of property was more natural, 
since a College living assumed frequently the 
form of a pension to a fellow who desired 
retirement from active life in the society. 
Such possessions are not likely to be extended 
in the future. 




FROM HENRY VI. TO THE PRESENT DAY 

IN the four centuries from Henry VI. to 
Victoria, King's College played a part of 
varying importance in the intellectual life of 
the University. Speaking roughly, the age of 
the Tudors was an era of greatness. Then 
came a reaction, general throughout the world 
of learning, in which King's College also 
suffered. In the storms of the Civil War the 
men of the King's College naturally ranged 
themselves under the Royalist banners ; al- 
though the University of a town which was 
the rallying point of Republican resistance and 
in which Cromwell himself was for sometime 
Member of Parliament, could not display the 
same unwavering loyalty to the cause of the 
Stuarts as did the University in the Royalist 
stronghold of Oxford. Through the unsettled 
times between the closing years of Elizabeth 
and the restoration of Charles II., the College 
was ably guided in the three lengthy Provost- 
ships of Roger Goad (1569-1610), Samuel 
Collins (1615-1644), and Benjamin Which- 
cote (1644-1660). Yet during the compara- 
tively settled period of the next thirty years, 
King's was less eminent intellectually than 
in days of uncertainty and strife. 

It was by a strange coincidence that in 1689, 
67 



KING'S COLLEGE 



the first year of the dual reign, which was 
begun upon the last of England's revolutions, 
King's came to a parting of the ways ; the 
College rejected Newton, and with him, per- 
haps, an immediate future of enlightenment 
and science. Instead there followed one 
hundred and fifty years of quiescence, if not 
stagnation, enthusiasm dormant, discipline 
slack, the social life quaint and domesticated. 
Although during this time more than one 
Kingsman, eminent in after life, resided 
within the College walls, yet the general level 
of scholarship was low. The nineteenth 
century had run more than half its course 
before King's threw off the cloak of obscurity, 
and was transformed slowly, even painfully, to 
the New King's of to-day, to a society fresher, 
freer, with stronger hopes and wider ideals. 

The struggles of the Roses, which destroyed 
the House of Lancaster, were an ill augury 
for the newly founded College. There was 
a general lassitude in the seats of English 
learning. As Fisher, looking back from the 
year 1506, says, "A weariness ofMearning and 
study had stolen on the University, whether 
owing to quarrels with townsmen, or the 
prevailing fever, or that there was a lack of 
helpers and patrons of letters." The com- 
pletion of the chapel buildings was the chief 
event of those days, though Robert Wodelarke, 
the third Provost, found time to establish on 
adjacent ground the Hall of St. Catharine's. 
But it was the dark before the dawn. In 1511 
Erasmus began his residence in Cambridge, 
and from his lodgings in the tower of Queens 1 
68 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

College lit the double lamp of the Renaissance 
and the Reformation. John Bryan, one of the 
first to lecture from Aristotle in the Greek, 
Richard Croke, of international renown, Sir 
John Cheke, Provost and Greek professor, were 
all pioneers of the new learning. And when 
religious struggles intervened upon the war of 
letters, Kingsmen were prominent on either 
side. 

A zealous Catholic was Nicholas West, 
who had risen from the bakehouse to the 
episcopal chair of Ely, Wolsey-like in the 
rapidity of his elevation, in his proud osten- 
tation and his royal orthodoxy. As an under- 
graduate desperately turbulent, detected in 
arson and larceny upon the Provost's lodgings, 
he expiated the impiety of his early disorders 
by benefactions to the College, and by zeal 
for the integrity of Holy Church. How he 
entered the lists against the heretic, how he 
attempted to surprise Hugh Latimer at St. 
Mary's Church, how the wily reformer changed 
his text, and preaching from the ninth of 
Hebrews, "But Christ being come an high 
priest of good things to come," contrasted the 
worldliness of present-day clergy with the 
simplicity of their great Exemplar is a familiar 
tale. Concealing his chagrin as best he could, 
West sought the preacher afterwards to beg 
one favour. " What is your lordship's pleasure ? " 
asked the reformer. "Marry!" said West, 
" that you preach once in this place one 
sermon against Martin Luther and his doc- 
trine." Latimer declined. He did not know 
the doctrine, he was not allowed to read the 
69 



KING'S COLLEGE 



works of Luther, but if he ever found that that 
man's teaching was contrary to scripture, he 
was ready to confute it with all his heart. 

Edward Fox and Richard Cox were promi- 
nent among those who in different ways, and 
with marked success, adopted the cause of 
Protestantism. Fox was a royal favourite, 
wily and diplomatic, entrusted at one time 
with a commission to the Pope for the negotia- 
tion of the divorce from Catherine of Arragon, 
at another sent to win the consent of the 
German princes at Schmalkalde. He died in 
1538. Richard Cox, the tutor of Henry VIIL, 
assisted in compiling the two prayer books of 
Edward VI. 

When Cardinal Pole sent his commission to 
Cambridge for the extirpation of heresy, they 
made their headquarters at King's " because," 
Fuller suggests, " the same for the worthiness 
thereof was chief and sovereign of all the 
residue, or else because that house especially 
before all others had been counted time out of 
mind never to be without a heretic (as they 
term them) or twain." In the little band of 
students, by-named " Germany," who used to 
meet nightly at the White Horse Inn to study 
around their grotesque leader, the diminutive 
Bilney, John Frith from King's was a promi- 
nent figure. He was transferred with other 
Cambridge scholars to Wolsey's College at 
Oxford, from which he was removed subse- 
quently for his heresy, sent abroad, and on his 
return committed to the Tower, where he 
wrote a work on the Sacraments, which cost 
him his life. He was burnt at Smithfield in 
70 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

July 1533. The Marian martyrs, twenty years 
later, included three Kingsmen Laurence 
Saunders, burnt at Coventry, whose memory is 
perpetuated in the scholarship which bears his 
name ; Robert Glover, also burnt in Coventry ; 
and John Hullier, vicar of Babraham, burnt on 
Jesus Green, the only sufferer in Queen 
Mary's reign at Cambridge itself. 

When Queen Elizabeth came to the throne 
she determined to reform the conditions of 
the universities, which thirty years of disquiet 
had not improved. As far as King's was 
concerned, Elizabeth was unfortunate. She 
nominated as Provost one Philip Baker, who 
took flight to save his deposition in 1569. 
Besides being a gigantic feeder and an in- 
ordinate lover of sweetbreads (as appears from 
his dining accounts), he was a scamper of his 
duties and a time-server, neglecting the Church 
offices and the studies, without any excuse save 
that he was at heart a Romanist. It was said 
of him that he was pistori quam pastori simi/ior, 
and that nothing in his life became him like 
the leaving it. 

The visit of the Queen to King's College in 
August 1564 was long remembered. The 
royal procession entered the College by the 
way of Queens' Lane (then one of the main 
entrances into Cambridge). It was greeted at 
the west door with a Latin oration from 
William Master, the public orator and a 
Kingsman. The choir then sang in English 
and the whole party moved up into the inner 
chapel, the Queen taking her place under a 
canopy at the east end. The Provost began 

7 1 



KING'S COLLEGE 



the Te Deum in English, which was solemnly 
sung in pricksong, the organs playing ; this 
was followed by evensong. The Queen then 
went out by a passage made through a window 
of the north-east side chapel to her apartments 
in the Provost's lodgings, receiving on her way 
a present of gloves and comfits. On the 
evening of the following Sunday the Aulularia 
of Plautus was acted in the antechapel, the 
Queen sitting against the south wall and some 
ladies occupying the rood loft. 

The forty- one years' Provostship of Dr. 
Goad, from 1569 to 1610, strengthened the 
College intellectually and materially. A Col- 
lege order two years after his accession reminds 
the reader that the Middle Ages were not long 
passed. All members of the College, the order 
declared, including servants and choristers, were 
forbidden to enter any stream, pool, or water 
within the county of Cambridge for the pur- 
pose of swimming or bathing either by day or 
night. The penalty for the first offence was 
a severe flogging in hall in the presence of the 
whole society ; while seniors who broke this 
law sat in the stocks in hall for a day. A 
second offence entailed expulsion. Sport was 
still severely discouraged. The " hurtful and 
unscholarly exercise " of football was forbidden 
(as may be gathered from the University in- 
junctions issued by Goad as Vice-Chancellor), 
except within each College and between mem- 
bers of the same College. Bull-baiting, bear- 
baiting, the carrying of weapons, the keeping 
of hawks and dogs, fishing in the river (which 
was then a monopoly of the town) all these 
72 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

practices were pronounced illegal. The under- 
graduates of that time seem to have possessed 
about as much liberty as the public school boys 
of to-day. Each resident had not as yet an 
apartment to himself. Bullying was not un- 
known. 

The closing years of Provost Goad's reign 
were embittered by severe quarrels among the 
fellows over matters of finance and discipline. 
In 1602 the strife reached a head. The Pro- 
vost and seniors, in consequence of the break- 
ing out of the plague, tried to shut the College. 
The juniors and scholars protested loudly. 
" There is no authority to drive us from the 
College, and we will not go, but withstand 
it. We are many poor, many orphans and 
friendless, many Londoners, and know not 
whither to go but into places still more dan- 
gerous." Peace was ultimately restored by the 
Visitor, who six years later published an injunc- 
tion entitled "Articles of Good Husbandrie 
and Reformation of Manners." 

Samuel Collins, who held the Provostship 
from 1615 till 1644, had also a long and 
troublesome reign. 

The dark days of the Civil War, in which 
more than one Kingsman perished, cost Collins 
his Provostship, but this was perhaps an ad- 
vantage for the College, since it made way for 
Benjamin Whichcote, whose wise administra- 
tion and broad sympathies helped in no small 
degree to preserve the College from the ven- 
geance of the Puritans. Whichcote was at once 
a man of intellect and heart. Belonging to the 
small but distinguished group of Cambridge 

73^ 



KING'S COLLEGE 



Platonists, he was a champion of toleration in 
days of intolerance. His sympathies with the 
unorthodox were too well known to survive 
the floodtide of the Anglican Restoration, and 
he retired to pastoral duties at the College 
Rectory of Milton, respected and regretted. 

When Dr. Snape died in 1743, a severe 
contest for the Provostship ensued. The 
following account is from an unsigned 
letter quoted by Sir Henry Maxwell Lyte : 
" The Fellows went into Chapel on Monday 
before noon in the morning as the Statute 
directs. After prayer and sacraments they 
began to vote twenty-two for George, six- 
teen for Thackeray, ten for Chapman. Thus 
they continued, scrutinising and walking about, 
eating and sleeping ; some of them smoking. 
Still the same numbers for each candidate, till 
yesterday about noon (for they held that in 
the forty-eight hours allowed for the election 
no adjournment could be made), when, the 
Tories, Chapman's friends, refusing absolutely 
to concur with either of the two other parties, 
Thackeray's votes went over to George by 
agreement, and he was declared. A friend of 
mine, a curious man, tells me he took a survey 
of his brothers at the hour of two in the morn- 
ing, and that never was a curious or more 
diverting spectacle. Some, wrapped in blankets, 
erect in their stalls like mummies ; others 
asleep on cushions, like so many Gothic tombs ; 
here a red cap over a wig ; there a face lost 
in the cape of a rug. One blowing a chafing 
dish with a surpliced sleeve ; another warming 
a little negus or sipping * Coke upon Littleton,' 
74 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

i.e. tent and brandy. Thus did they combat 
the cold of that frosty night, which has not 
killed many of them, to my infinite surprise." 

The old regime was slowly drawing to an 
end. Yet it lingered uneventfully for another 
hundred years, until, in the middle of Queen 
Victorians reign, the old garb was set aside and 
the new assumed. 

To-day the Freshman is at first somewhat 
anxious as to the proprieties he must observe. 
In an earlier age he would have copied out 
during the first week of his residence the Senior 
Scholar's book, which is a record of the customs 
and procedure regulating College life from the 
day of entry to the taking of the Master of 
Arts degree. From these books, dating from 
the sixteenth century, the later copies of which 
are sometimes incorrectly transcribed, many 
interesting details can be gleaned. 

The newly elected scholar (each scholar- 
ship being filled up as a vacancy occurred) 
must present himself within twenty days. 
The Junior scholar (i.e. the now ex-Fresh- 
man) brings the Freshman to College, sends 
for the tailor to provide a cap and gown, 
carries him to the Provost, directs him to 
stand before grace in Staincoat Hole 1 under 
the Organ loft at Chapel, asks the time of 
his admission, sees that he reads the admis- 
sion Statutes, provides a Greek Testament 
and the Publick Notary as witness against 

1 Staincoat or Stangate Hole is the corner in which 
was stored the stangor pole on which servants and scholars 
were carried by way of punishment, the latter chiefly for 
missing chapel. 

75 



KING'S COLLEGE 



the time of admission, makes him stand under 
the Bell or Provost's Lodge till called in. 

After admission the Freshman is installed in 
a chamber by the Provost and Vice-Provost, 
where he .is placed under the charge of a 
senior chamber Fellow, who lives above him, 
and attends him when he goes out. After 
ten days he emerges formally from his " tyro- 
cinium " ; after the first week he is Bibler in 
chapel ; after the first month he reads the 
grace. At the end of the term he matricu- 
lates. During the time of his Freshmanship 
he is carefully instructed by " his chum and 
the Senior scholar in and out of his cham- 
bers, lest he ignorantly alone should commit 
absurdities." 

The scholars as a body cap even Junior 
Fellows in the Court. They walk not in 
the Chapel Yard Walk. They strike (i.e. 
salute with the hat) Masters of Arts in Chapel 
Yard and Crouches (the ground between Old 
Court and the Chapel) except when a stranger 
is between. They cap the Provost in both 
places while in sight. They stand not to talk 
with a Fellow in sight of a Senior or M.A. 
either in the Court, Cow Lane, or the Nave 
of the Chapel, nor go into town in sight of 
any one of them except he give leave. The 
senior scholars are responsible for any disturb- 
ance made in Hall, Screens, or Chapel, if they 
give not an account thereof and the person 
that made it. 

There are four Solemn Beavers or Drinking 
Festivals in the year, for the remembrance of 
which there is a false verse, " Andreas Thomas 
76 ' 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

Sanctorum Nativitasque," on which eves at 
six o'clock the Fellows and Scholars meet to 
drink charity to each other. They are also 
called Crambo Nights from an old custom of 
playing then at Crambo. 

On certain festivals speeches are delivered 
in hall by the senior undergraduate who has 
not made one before. On founder's days, of 
course, there are solemn commemorations in 
chapel and hall. 

It may be remarked here, by way of explana- 
tion, that there were not in early times three 
annual vacations. Poverty and the expense of 
travelling did not allow of more than one break 
in the year the Long Vacation, which was 
probably made so long in order that the whole 
time should not be spent on the road to and 
fro. But there were certain substitutes for 
regular vacations. 

" Term out " is granted during Christmas, 
Easter, Whitsun, and Rogation week, as well 
as on founder's and other special days. This 
excuses the observance of exercises and of Canon 
hours, during which scholars must keep their 
rooms. Furthermore, on certain days " Dors," 
or permissions to sleep late are given, on Janu- 
ary 7 among other days " in memoriam Doctoris 
Cowel (the indiscreet author of the l Inter- 
preter '), because then and never else he overslept 
himself and missed early prayers." At the end 
of his three years of probation the scholar waits 
on all the fellows in turn and requests their votes, 
for his fellowship. These obtained, he is ad- 
mitted by the Provost with the kiss of peace, 
and then takes the Oath to the Government, 
77 



KING'S COLLEGE 



and the Sacraments according to the rites of 
the Church of England. 

Fellow of his college, but without a Univer- 
sity degree, he has now the privilege as a Kings- 
man of obtaining the requisite grace from his 
own college in his own college chapel. How- 
ever, he still goes to the schools subsequently 
to conduct formal disputations and to secure 
the Vice-Chancellor's placeat. As a Kings- 
man he takes precedence of all other questionists. 
In the case of Bachelors not Fellows (there 
were usually a few members in the College, 
who were not scholars on the foundation), the 
Father or Praelecter has to be constantly present 
in the Senate House to take care that Mr. 
Regent does not dispute too hard with his sons. 
When this is done, he goes to a tavern with 
the posers or examiners and talks over his sons' 
performances. If they have satisfied, they are 
entitled to demand their groats, amounting to 
three shillings and fourpence from the posers ; if 
not, the father tries to win over the posers by 
providing out of his own pocket the groats 
which they will present to the new bachelor. 

The Kingsmen can obtain their second 
University degree in the same way by grant 
from the College, and subsequent ratification 
from the University. They alone can become 
Inceptors in Arts (i.e. qualify for a Master of 
Arts, which they became in full, one term 
later) without a " Supplicat " or petition to the 
Vice-Chancellor and University authorities. 

After the M.A. degree come Orders, College 
offices, and usually a pension in the form of a 
college living, but of this the hook says nothing. 
78 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

Mr. Tucker has left a vivid picture of life 
in Old Court on the eve of its disappearance. 

Morning chapel was at eight, and no chapels 
were allowed. The penalty for absence was a 
Latin epigram of four lines, in which it was 
usual to express grief at the power of sleep. 
This had to be delivered personally to the Dean 
in residence before ten o'clock, which was a 
great hardship, because it interfered with the 
latter portion of breakfast. After breakfast 
came the morning lecture, the only lecture of 
the day, English and Greek alternately. If it 
was English day, "Locke on the Understand- 
ing " was the inevitable theme. The discourse 
was not highly metaphysical. The lecturer 
read parts of a sentence and required its con- 
clusion from some one " put on." Occasionally 
a question on the meaning followed. The 
student murmured something about " Sensa- 
tion and reflection." " Not exactly," the lec- 
turer would reply ; " it is rather ..." and 
then the lecture proceeded. 

Or it might be Greek day. Aristophanes, 
nothing but Aristophanes. All sat round the 
lecturer in a semicircle, book on knee. Each 
took a part. " Mr. Lofft will take Strepsiades " 
and so forth ; plain construing, varied now 
and then by the reading of a passage from some 
commentator to explain the political or other 
aspects of the text. 

At eleven o'clock the official studies were at 
an end. No need for Kingsmen to bother 
their heads about Mathematics or Tripos, for 
they had no Senate House to face. A stroll 
down to Deighton's to look at books, or to the 

79 



KING'S COLLEGE 



Union to peruse the morning papers, filled 
agreeably the two hours before lunch at one 
o'clock. Stilton and beer graced every luncheon 
table ; the richer feeders added a chop from 
the grill. 

The afternoon was devoted to riding or 
" constitutionals " on the Madingley or Gog- 
Magog roads. In summer the more energetic 
played cricket (the Kingsmen were too few 
and poor to boat), but not for long, since dinner 
was at four. The early returned sat by their 
windows awaiting the hour perhaps buying 
dessert at extortionate prices from " Crisp's 
man," who walked round with a tray of fruits 
and lofty sponge-cakes, supported by blooming 
grapes, pretty dishes, too, of Cognac cherries 
and olives. 

Dinner in Hall was the meal of the day 
good, plentiful, and well served. A dozen 
undergraduates or more sat down to the meal ; 
at the Seniors' table, three or four fellows ; at 
the Master's, ten ; at the Bachelors' 1 , some 
few. The three Bursars dined in a little room 
apart. 

After dinner some of the graduates mounted 
the Combi stairs to conduct a small sym- 
posium. Heady port was the wine drunk, 
" Blackstrap," with an antecedure in the wood. 
On a summer's day they drew their table to 
the window, looking out on the chapel, and 
the townsfolk strolling down to the river would 
look up at the "gentlemen a-drinking their 
wine." Porson now and then was a guest at 
King's, and where Porson dined Porson re- 
mained. Once, as he was leaving about day- 
80 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

light, he remarked to a taciturn neighbour : 
"Sir, you've sat up all night and have the 
pleasure of knowing that you've not said a 
single word worth listening to during the 
whole of it." 

The undergraduates went to their rooms 
after Hall to eat dessert and play whist. The 
Whist Club was called "The Old Mogul," 
because the backs of the cards had a picture of 
the Great Mogul. Supper intervened at ten 
o'clock ; wild ducks in winter, lamb and salads 
in summer. In those days they ran up high 
kitchen bills, with the assistance of Lawrence 
the cook, who had a Laurentian rate of charges 
all his own. After supper the host detained a 
select few for a round of tenpenny limited loo. 
Nor would they leave till they had coaxed from 
him just " one more cool bottle " out of the 
locker sawdust. 

Old Court was not always harmonious, as 
when the College band practised in the court 
flutes, 'cello, horns until a voice from the 
school's windows protested, " Non possumus 
procedere propter," only to be met by apolo- 
gies booed in the doggiest Latin. Or as the 
famous night, on which some one shot the 
College owl, and the report of the gun startled 
the ease of the Proctors and Justices of the 
town, who listened, and turned to each other 
as they said, with a smile, " Ah, it's only the 
Kingsmen." 

Occasionally the undergraduates ventured on 
bolder pleasures. A gig soon conveyed a party 
to a ball at Huntingdon, or Bury, bringing 
them back again by six on the following morn- 
Si F 



KING'S COLLEGE 



ing. Some one had been prudent enough to 
acquire a Fellow's key, and so, creeping on 
tip-toe down the Porter's passage, they reached 




KING'S PARADE 



their rooms in safety, and were found by their 
bed-makers at half-past seven sleeping soundly 
in their beds. Shades of the founder and his 
seventy poor scholars ! 

82 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

The new Kingsman, elected from Eton by 
an examination, which was a farce, sometimes 
unable to write a verse or construe ten lines of 
Vergil, entered upon three years of pleasant 
society ; not feeling strange and desolate as 
many a Freshman to-day, but gleefully wel- 
comed by a dozen familiar friends. Bachelor 
without public examination at the end of three 
or four years, the ex-Freshman, now Fellow of 
his college, if he contemplated taking orders, 
which were nominally necessary to the reten- 
tion of a Fellowship, proceeded to a theo- 
logical course at Ely, which was hardly more 
searching than his entrance examination into 
King's. After that a college living was only a 
question of time. 

It is not, however, true to say that intellec- 
tual enthusiasm was altogether dead. Mr. 
Tucker himself, for example, spent much of 
his leisure in the private study of modern 
languages, and not a few of his generation 
were distinguished in after life, as the con- 
cluding chapter will show. But the general 
level of scholarship was low. And there was 
already towards the middle of the nineteenth 
century a band of reformers gathering together 
who were determined to abolish the old state 
of things and to bring to the College an intel- 
lectual stimulus and vigour that was more in 
accordance with the spirit if not with the 
letter of the founder's wishes. 

Nothing, however, was possible during the 
tenure of Provost Thackeray, who united with 
Provost Goodall at Eton in a blank refusal to 
consider any schemes of reform. But on the 

83 



KING'S COLLEGE 



accession of Richard Okes in 1850 the era of 
change began. By the time of his death in 
1888 the College had assumed its present form. 
Broadly speaking, there were two stages in the 
process. First, the reformation of the society 
within the limits of the old constitution, and 
secondly, the remodelling of the constitution 
itself. 

There were three steps in the first stage. 
As early as 1821 John Lucius Dampier, a 
barrister, and his colleague John Tomkyns, 
the two " posers " or examiners, who selected 
the King's scholars from Eton, determined to 
make the examination a reality and initiated 
the policy, which was gradually realised, of 
election by merit and not merely by order of 
seniority. 

Secondly, on 1st May 1851 it was unani- 
mously agreed " that the present practice of 
claiming for the undergraduate of this College 
the degree of B.A. without passing the 
examinations required by the University be 
abandoned." The abolition of this privilege, 
which rested on no certain grant from the 
founder and which had already been foregone 
in the parallel case of New College, Oxford, 
was all the more desirable in view of the recent 
establishment of the Classical Tripos. 

Thirdly, in 1861 the Parliamentary Com- 
mission appointed to inquire into the condition 
of Oxford and Cambridge Colleges published a 
set of new statutes for the College, one part of 
which rearranged the method of government. 
The predominating position of the Provost and 
Seniors was replaced by a more democratic 
84 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

arrangement which vested the chief control in 
the general body of M.A. Fellows. 

So far the Constitution, though amended, 
was fundamentally unaltered. But the second 
half of the Commissioners' instrument broke 
down the monopoly of Eton. Instead of a 
body of seventy Etonians, in which the pro- 
portion of Fellows to Scholars fluctuated as the 
number of deaths, marriages, and vacancies in 
Livings varied, there was to be a fixed number 
of forty-six Fellows and forty-eight Scholars. 
All obligation to take Holy Orders was re- 
moved, but the Fellows of the future were not 
to enjoy the emoluments of a senior. Finally 
and this was the important clause twenty- 
four scholarships were reserved for Eton, and 
the other twenty-four were thrown open to 
boys from other schools. 

But although the barrier was broken down, 
modern King's was not yet created. The 
constructive work was still to come. What 
the statutes of 1861 made possible, the statutes 
of 1882 accomplished. It is only of the period 
following the latter set of statutes, which 
govern the College at the present day, that the 
term modern King's can be properly used. 

This final change involved two main differ- 
ences, a difference of conception, and a differ- 
ence of practical management. 

By the statutes of 1882, Fellowships were 
made tenable after marriage, and terminable in 
six years, unless held in conjunction with a 
College office. They were awarded by com- 
petition as the result of dissertations involving 
original work. A fellowship ceased to be 
85 



KING'S COLLEGE 



matter of dividend and became a reward of 
merit and, as the founder intended, a provision 
for research. Four professorial fellowships 
were set apart for University professors. 

And, what was of equal importance, the 
College became for the first time truly autono- 
mous. Before 1882 the decisive part of the 
College government rested with the General 
Congregation, chiefly composed of non-resi- 
dents, the most influential of whom were at 
Eton. Subordinate business was transacted 
either in ordinary college meetings or through 
an informal body composed of the Provost and 
the College officers. At these gatherings 
bursarial business occupied the greater part of 
the time. What small amount of educational 
management existed was left to a separate 
educational council. The statutes of 1882 
shifted the centre of gravity. The resident 
members of the College acquired the dominant 
voice in the College government ; and the 
College council, to which the government was 
mainly entrusted, made its educational work 
the predominant side of its activity. The 
College, that is to say, definitely adopted a 
conception of itself as a place of higher educa- 
tion, and, in accordance with this principle, 
made contributions to the University funds ; 
this brought it into line with other colleges. 

Where one generation opened the gate, the 
next generation entered in. In 1861 Scholar- 
ships were declared open, but it was not till 
1873 that the first open Scholar was elected. 
In 1865 two Exhibitions were announced for 
competition, and pensioners, i.e. undergraduates 
86 



HENRY VI. TO PRESENT DAY 

receiving no emoluments, were admitted on 
the condition that they should read for Honours, 
Poll men being excluded, but it was not for 
another decade or more that the annual entry 
became at all large. In 1861 the office of 
Tutor, which had long been in abeyance, was 
revived, but the tutorial system was not made 
effective on a large scale, until some years after 
the statutes of 1882 had come into operation 
when assistant tutors were appointed to 
control the specific branches of study, leaving 
to the general tutor the broad work of 
organisation. 

In this way the College became what it is 
to-day, a society of forty-six Fellows, the 
majority resident, and engaged in teaching or 
research, and about one hundred and fifty 
Students, Scholars, Exhibitioners, and Pen- 
sioners, working together without distinction 
under one system in friendly and intimate 
relations with their instructors. 




SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 

A*4 exhaustive list of all the members of any 
college, whose names for one reason or 
another, whether in the scholarship of the 
university or the wider fields of politics and 
letters, have been handed down to posterity, 
would demand an amount of space which this 
short review cannot afford to give. In men- 
tioning a few, and as far as possible the most 
interesting, of the Kingsmen of different genera- 
tions four broad periods may be distinguished. 

First comes the age of the Renaissance and 
the Reformation, the early youth of King's, 
when the College was equal if not superior in 
importance to any Cambridge college. Move- 
ments like the Renaissance and the Refor- 
mation, pre-eminently intellectual in their 
character, if they did not start from the uni- 
versities at any rate found in them a centre of 
gravity, so that the resident members of a 
college would win a national reputation more 
readily than in an era distinguished for political 
or social brilliance. Hence the Kingsmen 
of this generation were at once collegiate 
students and national figures. Bryan, Croke, 
and Cheke, the masters of the new learning ; 
Fox and Cox, the champions of the Reforma- 
tion ; Frith and Saunders, the martyrs in its 
88 



SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 

cause, were not only educated at King's, but 
acquired their reputations in the prosecution of 
learning and religion. Their achievements, 
therefore, have been already noted in the 
chapter which traced the College's history. 

But in the second and succeeding periods the 
eminent Kingsmen were more often noble 
fellow-commoners who gained their distinctions 
in the outside world, than students occupied in 
intellectual work. The Elizabethan era con- 
tains many such names of eminent men owing 
little directly to their college, though often 
gratefully remembering it in the hour of success. 
The third period, the age of the Stuarts, was 
retrogressive and uneventful. In the fourth 
period, which begins with the accession of the 
Hanoverians, the list of distinguished names 
becomes once more large, dividing roughly in 
two groups : the contemporaries of the Wai- 
poles and the contemporaries of Simeon. 

Of the rich outburst of national vigour which 
marked the Elizabethan age, King's drew its 
full share chiefly, indeed, from among the 
ranks of the nobility, who, residing for a few 
years at college, went out afterwards to politics 
and adventure. The most prominent Kings- 
man of this class was Sir Francis Walsingham, 
Elizabeth's great minister, who, with his elder 
colleague Cecil, Lord Burleigh, steered the ship 
of State for more than twenty years through 
the stormy shoals of internal conspiracy and 
foreign intrigue. He remembered his College 
by presenting to it some books, including a copy 
of the Antwerp Polyglot of 1569-73. 

Less distinguished, far less useful, rather more 
89 



KING'S COLLEGE 



attractive, and quite as characteristic of his age 
was Sir John Harington, who matriculated at 
King's in 1576. A great favourite at Court, 
" the saucy poet, my Godson," of Queen Eliza- 
beth, Harington enjoyed the license which was 
accorded to a jester and maker of epigrams. 
Only once did he become serious when he 
applied for an archbishopric in Ireland. " My 
very genius," he said, " doth in a sort lead me 
to that country." 

The four sons of Lord Cobham were also 
fellow-commoners about this time. 

Henry Howard, first Earl of Northampton, 
entered the College in 1564 as a fellow- 
commoner. His after life was spent in the 
atmosphere of courts, where he displayed an 
adroitness that was fully needed to save him 
from a well-founded charge of double-dealings 
with the Pope, the Queen of Scots, or the 
King of Spain. A Roman Catholic at heart, 
if not in letter, he was one of the strongest 
advocates of the royal person in the trials of Sir 
Walter Raleigh and Guy Fawkes. Though 
completely unprincipled in his public life, 
Howard displayed a many-sided culture, and 
was styled by Francis Bacon, " the learnedst 
councillor in the kingdom." Northumberland 
House, which he built for himself as his London 
residence, attests at once his wealth and artistic 
taste. 

Giles Fletcher, civilian, ambassador and poet, 
entered King's as a scholar in 1565. During 
the early part of his life he resided as a fellow, 
and played a prominent part in the attacks on 
Provost Goad. But in 1588 he made his 
90 



SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 



famous journey to Russia, where, though 
treated with much indignity, he secured sub- 
stantial privileges for English merchants. His 
" History of Russia," with a description of 
contemporary manners and fashions which 
has only recently become available to the 
student in its complete form is the chief 




jfrom l/ie river- 



authority in English of Russian conditions at 
that time. Later in life he became involved in 
an expensive lawsuit, and was granted by the 
College the lease of the great tithes of the 
Rectory of Ringwood, in Hampshire. 

Phineas Fletcher, his son, entered King's in 
1600. In 1614 he wrote "The Sicelides," a 
pastoral play, intended for the visit of King 
James, and performed ultimately in the College. 

9 1 



KING'S COLLEGE 



But two years later some friction with the 
authorities caused his withdrawal. 

" Not I my Chame, but me proud Chame refuses, 
His froward spites my strong affections sever, 
Else from his banks could I have parted never." 

His magnum opus was " The Purple Island, 
or the Isle of Man," an allegory after Spenser's 
"Faery Queen," clumsy and overloaded in parts, 
yet discovering a rich melody and a singular 
charm of scenic description, together with a 
certain majesty in the personification of vice 
and virtue, which suggests Milton, who knew 
Fletcher well. 

The age of the Stuarts contains but few 
Kingsmen of eminence, and these few were 
nearly all scholars, as contrasted with the distin- 
guished fellow-commoners of the former period. 

Two of them were theological politicians : 
Dr. Cowell, whose " Interpreter," published in 
1607, in the early part of James I.'s reign, 
preached the doctrine of Absolute Monarchy 
with such unequivocal thoroughness that it 
was burned by the common hangman at the 
insistence of an indignant Parliament ; and 
Richard Mountague, the vigorous Anglican 
Bishop, who made it his object in life " to 
stand in the gap between puritanism and 
popery, the Scylla and Charybdis of ancient 
piety," and whose two publications, " A 
New Gag for an Old Goose " (the goose of 
Romanism) and "Appello Caesarem," were the 
most eventful crises in a stormy life. 

There was a third theologian of sterner 
92 



SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 

stuff, John Pearson, who, after a year at 
Queens 1 College, was admitted scholar of 
King's in 1632. Later he became Master 
of Jesus College, and afterwards of Trinity 
College. His magnum opus, which is, within 
its limits, the most perfect and complete pro- 
duction of English dogmatic theology, has 
perpetuated the writer in " Pearson on the 
Creed." 

Edmund Waller, the poet, on the other 
hand, was a fellow-commoner. During the 
time of the Commonwealth he was in exile, 
owing to his share in the conspiracy named 
after him ; but at the Restoration he re- 
turned, entered Parliament, and, although a 
total abstainer, was a great favourite at the 
courts of Charles and James II. Of his poetry 
it may be said that it marked the transition 
from Elizabeth to the Restoration the smooth, 
rhyming couplet, unimaginative, forced, re- 
sponding with alacrity to a pecuniary donation, 
too typical of the muse of contemporary Eng- 
land, to which the genius of " Paradise Lost," 
a work, Waller thought, which was only dis- 
tinguished by its length, formed a solitary 
exception. 

The third period opens with the most illus- 
trious name of all, Sir Robert Walpole, the 
great peace minister of the early Georges, who 
was admitted in 1696 from Eton, which he 
had entered six years previously. Coxe says 
that he left Eton " an excellent scholar." He 
was only at Cambridge two years, during which 
time he had an attack of smallpox. His 
tenure of the Premiership, from 1721 to 1743, 
93 



KING'S COLLEGE 



secured for England twenty years of continuous 
peace, which she had not enjoyed since the 
time of Elizabeth. He was absolute master of 
the art of managing men, both in and out of 
Parliament ; the first financier of his age 
practical, tolerant, with a prodigious memory 
and an imperturbable temper. He reflected in 
his public life a native genius, rather than the 
graces of an acquired culture. A sporting 
squire, of loose and coarse habits, fond, indeed, 
of pictures, yet never putting his eyes to a 
book, " Bluff Bob " of Gay's opera, was a 
mighty business man. When he is accused 
of setting a corrupt standard in public affairs, 
it must be remembered that the Parliament of 
that time, all powerful in pretensions, yet 
neither wishing or meant to rule, was barely 
manageable by any other means. " All those 
men," he said of the patriots, " have their 
price." It was quite true, yet he was loudly 
condemned, like Machiavelli, for having the 
frankness to admit and to act upon it. 

Lord Townshend, his brother-in-law and 
early colleague, was likewise educated at Eton 
and King's, which he entered as a fellow-com- 
moner in 1690. A man of hot temper and 
moderate abilities, with their usual attendant 
a boundless confidence, conscientious and 
cultured, he was forced from public life by 
the able and more downright Walpole, and 
retired to his Norfolk estate of Rainham, where 
he conducted the agricultural experiments 
which gained him the name of " Turnip 
Townshend." 

Horace Walpole, the son, fellow-commoner 
94 



SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 

from 17341739, was made of thinner stuff 
than his father. His political life amounted 
to little more than the enjoyment of several 
sinecures, and the literary championship of his 
father. But as a wit, a letter-writer, and a 
man of quality, he was at the head of his age. 
His novel, " The Castle of Otranto," and his 
creation of Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham, 
are the two achievements most frequently con- 
nected with his name. He had but little 
affection for his College and University, to 
which he thought the charms of Paris were 
highly preferable. 

Charles Pratt, first Earl Camden, was ad- 
mitted scholar in 1731. For many years a 
briefless barrister, he obtained his first case by 
a lucky chance, after which he rose rapidly to 
be Lord Chief-Justice and Lord Chancellor. 
As Chancellor he affirmed the illegality of 
general warrants in the case of John Wilkes, 
the notorious editor of the North Briton, and 
throughout his career he was fond of posing 
as champion of the popular liberties. He had 
a handsome, if languid person, and a character 
like unto it a mixture of the indolent dilet- 
tante and temperate epicure. 

Thomas Orde, afterwards Lord Bolton, came 
to King's some thirty years later. At Cam- 
bridge Orde studied the art of etching, and 
acquired a dangerous aptitude " in taking off 
any peculiarity of person " ; however, he molli- 
fied his victims by presenting to them the 
profits of the picture. In after life he was 
Chief Secretary to the Duke of Rutland in 
Ireland. He was indeed good-looking, if the 

95 



KING'S COLLEGE 



picture of him which is in the College Hall, 
a copy from the original by Romney, is at 
all a faithful likeness. 

Frederick, Earl of Carlisle, who entered 
King's as a fellow-commoner in 1764, was 
a fashionable politician and patron of letters. 
Byron, whose guardian he was, dedicated the 
second edition of " Hours of Idleness " to 
him ; but irritated at the Earl's failure to 
support his interests with the Government, 
he substituted for a complimentary couplet in 
his "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," 
which was at that time going through the 
press, the following bitter beginning : 

" No muse will cheer with renovating smile 
The paralytic puling of Carlisle." 

Archdeacon William Coxe was, like Giles 
Fletcher of Elizabethan times, a travelled 
litterateur. In 1771, three years after be- 
coming a fellow, he became travelling tutor 
to a nobleman's sons, and published later the 
impressions gathered on his tours through 
Switzerland and Russia. He was a voluminous 
but rather dull writer, more a careful collector 
and editor than an author of independent 
thought. His history, however, of the House 
of Austria was long a standard work, and his 
many memoirs on contemporary politics threw 
interesting side-lights on eighteenth century 
history. He was among the first of English 
historians to appreciate the importance of 
foreign history. 

Sir Vicary Gibbs, judge, was admitted 
scholar in 1771. As Attorney-General he 
96 



SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 

distinguished himself by the severity of his 
persecutions against the press. He was a 
little man, five feet four inches in height, 
and of a meagre frame. Possessing great 
legal knowledge, he was uniformly uncivil to 
his clients, wholly destitute of humour, and 
possessed so caustic and bitter a temper that 
he acquired the name of " Vinegar Gibbs." 

The first half of this final period may be 
closed with the mention of three Kingsmen 
who were benefactors to their College and 
University. William Battie, the founder of the 
Battie Scholarship, who as an undergraduate 
beat Bentley of Trinity for the Craven 
Scholarship ; Thomas James, the founder of 
the College prizes for Declamations, who for 
his work as head of Rugby School which 
he raised from 60 to 245 boys has been 
named " the creator of Rugby as it now is ; " 
Robert Glynn, founder of the Glynn Prizes, 
a kindly eccentric doctor, who cured lepers 
in the fens and who, according to Horace 
Walpole, was a doting old physician, according 
to Lord Chatham, one of the cheerful and 
witty sons of Apollo. 

The second half of this period may be called 
the age of Simeon : for in 1778 Charles Simeon 
entered King's as a scholar from Eton, and on 
November the igth, 1836, he was buried in 
the College chapel. During the greater part 
of this period he resided in the College, hold- 
ing in turn the offices of Dean, Bursar and 
Vice-Provost. Three months after his en- 
trance Simeon passed through the profound 
mental change, which led him to a life of 

97 G 



KING'S COLLEGE 



piety and evangelical devotion. But, though 
so long in residence, he was never in close 
sympathy with the members of his own Col- 
lege, whether from his own strictness or from 
their indifference. Among other students, 
however, he was widely liked. Every Friday 
evening, in his own rooms over Gibbs's arch- 
way, he used to preside over " Conversation 
circles " composed of undergraduates, at which 
questions of faith and doctrine were sympa- 
thetically discussed. At other times he held 
gatherings of his parishioners and near friends 
in his own rooms or in theirs. Over most of 
those who knew him Simeon exercised a per- 
sonal magnetism which made them his devoted 
disciples. As minister or perpetual curate of 
Holy Trinity Church from 1782 to 1836, 
he showed how patience could overcome the 
bitterest animosity. At first his parishioners 
locked the doors of their pews, and refused 
to allow their use by others ; undergraduates 
disturbed the services, and he himself was 
threatened with violence in the streets. When 
he died in 1836 he was universally beloved. 
Simeon was a keen student. He rose every 
morning at four, and to keep himself from 
oversleeping gave half a crown to his servant 
whenever he exceeded. One morning, how- 
ever, as he lay warm and comfortable, he 
reflected that half a crown would be very 
useful to the poor woman. But this fallacy 
was not to be tolerated. On the next occa- 
sion he bound himself instead to throw a guinea 
into the river ; which he did once, but after 
that he transgressed no more. Simeon's chief 



SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 

literary work was a collection, of outlines of 
sermons ("Skeletons") on the whole Bible, 
entitled Horts Homileticce. They reflect 
very accurately his own character, full of a 
faith so intense as to be hard of comprehen- 
sion, yet straightforward, direct, and shrinking 
from the ornate. But his influence was most 
potent as a reformer of Church appointments 
and pioneer of missionary enterprise. He 
established and endowed a body of trustees 
for acquiring Church patronage, and for 
making appointments in accordance with his 
own views of fitness. These are the " Simeon 
trustees," who control many livings at the 
present day. And, along with his friend 
Henry Martyn, he instituted the Indian chap- 
laincies, the forerunners of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, which he helped to establish 
in 1795. Simeon, however, was no ascetic. 
He was an excellent horseman : he sometimes 
lost his temper : and he was fond of a good 
dinner. Mr. Tucker relates an amusing anec- 
dote. One day Simeon gave an order to the 
cook for a large dinner, in which there was 
to be a particular delicacy containing veal. 
After having walked five or six steps away 
from the office, he suddenly went back, and 
said in an impressive voice, " Be sure, Mr. 
Lawrence, that it is a female." 

In 1806 three friends entered King's together 
Stratford Canning, first Viscount Stratford de 
Redcliffe, the strenuous and long-lived Eastern 
Ambassador ; John Lonsdale, the scholarly 
and capable Bishop of Lichfield ; and Thomas 
Rennell, a theologian of undoubted talents and 

99 



KING'S COLLEGE 



prodigious acquirements, who was deeply con- 
cerned with the necessity of reforming the 
College, but unfortunately for it died at the 
early age of thirty-seven. 

John Bird Sumner, the one Archbishop of 
Canterbury educated at King's College, became 
a fellow in 1801, after a distinguished under- 
graduate career. As archbishop he presided 
rather weakly over the celebrated " Gorham 
Case." He was, in Bishop Wilberforce's 
words, " good, gentle, loving, and weak," a far 
different character from his disgusted sub- 
ordinate, Dr. Phillpotts, the impetuous Bishop 
of Exeter. 

Capel Lofft, who entered King's in 1824, 
and two years later obtained the Craven 
Scholarship, the highest honour then open 
to Kingsmen, was a man of a serious, intro- 
spective turn of mind. Like Robert Owen, 
the social reformer, he was led in after-life to 
embrace wild political theories, which he pub- 
lished in a poem, " Ernest, the Rule of Right," 
a tale representing the growth, struggles, and 
triumphs of Chartism. 

Among the judges of this period, it is 
usually possible to find a Kingsman or two. 
Among others may be mentioned here Chief- 
Justice Mansfield, Sir Henry Dampier, and 
Sir John Patteson. 

Yet though in these last two centuries of 
College history the roll is never absolutely 
bare, there is little doubt that the College 
failed to maintain the prominent position, 
which certainly it occupied in the age of the 
Tudors, and which perhaps it occupies to-day. 
IOO 



SOME EMINENT KINGSMEN 

It was not until the reformation and expansion 
of the College in the latter half of the nine- 
teenth century that Kingsmen, as a college, 
once again began to take a worthy part in the 
intellectual life of the University. Of the 
recent distinctions it is not here the place to 
speak. Some of the actors are still living ; and 
their work awaits the judgment of a later age. 
Two only shall be mentioned whose memory 
is still green, Henry Bradshaw, Librarian of 
the University, who lived through and played 
no light part in the era of change ; and J. K. 
Stephen, whose youth of brilliant promise was 
cut short by a tragic accident. 

If Kingsmen have something to regret in 
the history of their society, they have much of 
which they may be proud. If King's sacrificed 
itself in the past for Eton, it has the future in 
which to live for itself. If fame is now harder 
to acquire because won from a wider circle, 
the society gains more than the individual 
loses, and all may hope. 



101 



APPENDIX 1 

THE WINDOWS OF KING'S 
COLLEGE CHAPEL 

By M. R. JAMES, LlTT.D., Pro-vast of King's College 

WHAT I have to say will divide itself conveniently 
into two main sections one, the history of the 
windows, the other, their subjects and style. Before 
I can begin dealing with either, however, I must 
ask you to take stock briefly of the extent of the 
subject with which we are to deal. The windows 
with which we are concerned are twenty-five in 
number. Twelve are on each side of the chapel, 
and one at the east end. And in order to prevent 
confusion in the future I will ask you to keep in 
mind this additional fact. The south-eastern window 
of the chapel was originally only half the size of the 
others. It reached down to the level of the transom 
or cross-bar ; the rest was blind panelling. This 
was because a building was designed by the founder 
to abut on to the chapel at that point. It was, in 
fact, actually begun, and in old prints of the College 
the beginnings may be seen represented. But when 
the screen which shuts off the College from the street 
was built that is, in the year 1827 the ruinous 
unfinished building was cleared away and the lower 
half of the window opened out. The old glass was 
subsequently moved down to the lower half of the 
window, and in 1845 tne u PP er half was filled with 

1 This Appendix consists of extracts from an address 
on the windows delivered in the Chapel some years ago 
by Dr. James. 

103 



APPENDIX 



the glass which now occupies it. The great west 
window, moreover, was never filled with painted 
glass. It remained glazed with clear glass until 
the year 1879, when Messrs. Clayton & Bell 
were employed to place in it the glass which you 
now see there. To speak accurately, therefore, out 
of twenty-six great windows in the chapel, twenty- 
four and a half contain ancient glass ; the exceptions 
are the west window and the upper half of the south- 
east window. It will not be possible for me to 
deal with the smaller remains of glass which are 
in the side chapels. We will confine ourselves to 
the great upper windows. 

The extent of our material having been thus defined, 
I will lay before you the main facts in its history. 

There is no particular injunction as to the glazing 
of the windows in the very full directions laid down 
by the founder, King Henry VI., for the con- 
struction of the chapel. It is not until long after 
his death, in fact not until Henry VIII. had been 
for some years on the throne, that we find any real 
step taken. Nothing, however, could well have 
been done earlier. Interrupted by the long Civil 
War, the building of the church had dragged slowly 
on from 1446 to 1515. Not until the latter year 
was the stonework finished, and to the same year 
belongs our first record of the windows. It is a 
memorandum that ,100 are to be paid in advance 
to Barnard Flower, the king's glazier. In all likeli- 
hood Flower would have been employed to execute 
all the windows, but he died, seemingly in 1525 or 
1526, having only finished four. The College had 
therefore to resort to another firm ; and in fact we 
have two contracts with glaziers made within a few 
days of each other in the year 1526, on which we 
must spend a few moments. 

The first is an agreement with four glass workers 
104 



APPENDIX 



all resident in London. Their names are Galyon 
Hone, of St. Mary Magdalene's parish in South- 
wark ; Richard Bownde, of St. Clement Danes ; 
Thomas Reve, of St. Sepulchre, Newgate ; and 
James "Nycholson," of St. Thomas's in Southwark. 
The windows they are to glaze are eighteen in 
number, viz., the east window, the west window, 
and sixteen others. And the work desired is to 
be executed : 

" with good, clene, sure, and perfyte glasse " 
(" Normandy glasse " was written at first and then 
struck out), 'and oryent colours and imagery of the 
story of the old lawe and of the newe lawe " (i.e. 
the O.T. and N.T.), "after the fourme, maner, 
goodenes, curyousytie, and clenelynes, in every 
poynt of the kynge's newe chapell at Westmynster " 
(i.e. Henry VI I. 's Chapel). " And also accordingly 
and after suche maner as oon Barnard Flower, 
glasyer, late deceessed, by indenture stode bounde 
to doo." This contract was on the 3Oth of April. 
On the 3rd of May a precisely similar agreement 
was entered into with another firm consisting of two 
men, Fraunces " Wyllyamson," of St. Olaves, South- 
wark, and Symond " Symondes," of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster. This contract provided for four 
windows, two on each side of the chapel. The 
cost of the glass was to be is. q.d. per foot, and 
the work was to be completed (and so far as we 
know was completed) within five years, that is by 
May 1531. These contracts, then, provide for the 
glazing of the east and west windows the latter 
of which was never carried out and twenty out of 
the twenty-four side windows, leaving us to suppose 
that four of these side windows had been already 
finished by Barnard Flower. 

Can we tell anything of the men who were em- 
ployed to carry out this enormous work ? Taking 
105 



APPENDIX 



Flower first, we may guess with some probability that 
as the king's glazier he had been employed largely in 
making the glass tor Henry VII. 's Chapel, which was 
taken as a model in quality, and very likely also in 
subject for the windows here. Of that glass only a 
single panel remains at Westminster a fragmentary 
figure of a prophet ; so that we are reduced to picking 
out by conjecture the work of Flower in this chapel. 
It might be guessed that he would have put in the 
first four windows of the series ; but this very 
plausible idea is put out of court by the fact that in 
the first window that in the north-west corner the 
date 1527 is found, and we know that Flower was 
dead in 1526. One window we can assign to him 
with more confidence. It is that over the organ 
loft on the north side. At the bottom is what is 
usually, and I think rightly, read as a date in Arabic 
figures 15017. This may quite legitimately be read 
as 1517, for nothing is commoner in ancient figure- 
writing than to find the o inserted where it has 
neither business nor meaning. It is also probable, to 
my thinking, that the window over the north door is 
Flower's work, for it differs slightly in arrangement 
from all the others, and has an aspect far more 
mediaeval and less redolent of the Renaissance. We 
can only guess at the other two ; but I am fairly con- 
fident that they are all to be looked for in the north 
side of the chapel. The firm of four men, Hone, 
Bownde, Reve, and Nicholson who filled the 
east window and sixteen side windows, have their 
best monument here. There is no reason to doubt 
that they were all Englishmen ; but we have infor- 
mation about two of them, Hone and Nicholson. 
Hone is described as making glass chiefly heraldic 
in 1539-40 for Hampton Court, and he had then 
succeeded Flower in the position of king's glazier. 
As to Nicholson, in 1519 he had been working at 

106 



APPENDIX 



Great St. Mary's Church ; and it has been thought 
that he is the James Nicholson who was printing 
English bibles and other books in Southwark ten 
years after the date of the contract. The third 
firm, Williamson and Symonds, seem to have been 
Flemings. The former signs himself Willemzoen 
and the latter Simenon. But this fact, interesting 
as it is, is not of much importance as regards the 
designing of the windows, for the contract stipulates 
that Williamson and Symonds were to procure the 
designs from Messrs. Hone & Co. They seem 
therefore to have been only workmen and not de- 
signers. Hone and his fellows are to be held 
primarily responsible for all but four of the ancient 
windows. 

Of the subsequent history of the glass up to the 
present day I need not say much. No radical 
changes have taken place in it since it was first put 
up. It has been four or five times wholly or partially 
releaded, but I need not stop to give you the dates 
at which this was done. On two episodes only I 
must dwell very shortly. The first is the treatment 
of the glass during the Civil Wars. When so many 
acres of similar glass perished, why and how were 
these enormous pictures, many of them redolent of 
Mariolatry, spared ? It is certain at least and this 
point I would beg you to bear in mind that the 
windows were never removed. In the last century 
there was a tradition that the west window was 
broken by Cromwell's soldiers, and that thereupon 
the rest of the glass was taken out and concealed 
inside the organ screen. Nowadays a story is current, 
embodied in a novel called the Chorister, that all the 
glass was buried in pits hastily prepared in the college 
grounds. It was taken down and placed in these 
pits in one night by a man and a boy. Both of these 
stories are absolute fictions. What we know is that 
107 



APPENDIX 



William Dowsing, the agent for destruction in these 
parts, who visited the chapel, notes in his diary that 
there were rooo superstitious pictures to be destroyed, 
received his statutable fee of 6s. 8d. and retired, 
not to return. It is most probable that Cromwell, 
anxious to have at least one of the universities on 
his side, gave some special order that no wilful 
damage should be wrought on this building, which, 
then as now, was the pride of Cambridge and of 
all the country round. 

The other episode is the restoration of the 
windows in the present century. Between the years 
1841 and 1849 a g! az i er called John Hedgeland 
was employed not only to put glass into the upper 
half of the south-eastern window, but also to relead 
the windows in the choir. Those which he restored 
were the rive easternmost windows on the north side, 
and the six easternmost (including the half window) on 
the south. Most unfortunately this person did not 
confine himself to necessary repairs. He removed a 
good deal of the old glass notably a great many 
heads and replaced them by work of his own. 
This explains the presence in these choir windows 
of a large number of foolish pink smiling faces, and 
unnaturally fresh and distinct inscriptions. Atten- 
tion was fortunately called to the mischief that was 
being done, and the remaining windows escaped. It 
became necessary, however, in recent years to take 
measures for the safety of the unrestored windows, 
which had not been touched since 1765. In 1893 
the College put the work into the hands of Mr. 
Kempe, whose name inspires confidence at once, and 
since then a window has been releaded every year. 
The work is simply one of reparation. The lead 
and ironwork are renewed, displacements are set 
right, and gaps, if any exist, are rilled with glass of a 
neutral tint. 

108 



APPENDIX 



So much for the history of the windows. We 
must now turn to the subjects represented in them. 
In unity of plan, this series has but one rival in 
importance in this country, namely the windows at 
Fairford in Gloucestershire. There, as here, a 
definite scheme of subjects has been sketched out, 
executed, and allowed to remain. You have apostles 
and prophets in the aisles, persecutors and saints in 
the clerestory, the Life of Christ in the chancel, and 
the Last Judgment in the western windows. In most 
other churches, English and foreign alike, it is difficult 
to trace a coherent scheme running through the 
building. The several windows are usually the gifts 
of separate donors who like to commemorate them- 
selves or their own patron saints. It is only in 
the clerestories and the choir windows that a well- 
marked and uniform set of subjects is allowed to 
appear. Commonly we have prophets and apostles 
in the former, and the story of the Passion in the 
latter. But here at King's a regular sequence of pic- 
tures is present, running from tne first window to the 
last. It begins and ends with the Life of the Virgin, 
and intermediately the Life of Christ and the histcry 
of the Apostles are treated. With a few exceptions 
the representations of the events of the New Testa- 
ment are illustrated by types drawn from the Old. 
This much being premised, I will set forth one very 
important matter all-important, indeed, to those who 
wish to understand the glass the arrangement of 
the individual windows. Look at any one of the 
side windows: you see at the top of each a number of 
small' openings lights is the technical name, which 
I shall use in all cases. Fourteen or fifteen of these 
have in them heraldic badges of different kinds. At 
the summit you will always find the Royal Arms as 
borne by Henry VII., and the rest of the badges, 
crowns, portcullises, hawthorn bushes and the like, 
109 



APPENDIX 



are all appropriate to Henry VII. There are also 
initials H. E. (Henry VII. and Elizabeth of York) 
and H. K. for Henry VIII. as Prince of Wales, and 
Katherine of Aragon. These badges, repeated in 
various proportions, run all round the side windows. 
They are all the work of one artist or firm, and they 
must all have been put up at one time, very likely 
before any other glass was made for the chapel. It 
is at least clear that the initials of Henry and 
Katherine of Aragon could not have been put up at 
a time when the king's divorce was being publicly 
agitated; that is, not later than 1527. It is very 
possible that all this glass was made by Barnard 
Flower. It is rough work in some cases, yet very 
skilful, and wonderfully good considering the amount 
of repetition that there is in it. Below these small 
lights you have five tall lights, a crossbar or transom, 
and five more tall lights. Take the central light 
first. It contains four figures, or half figures, one 
above another. Each of these carries either an 
inscribed scroll or a tablet. Two of them are 
usually angels ; the others are prophets or priests. 
The name commonly given to these figures is 
Messengers. They carry inscriptions explanatory of 
the pictures on either side of them. The designs of 
these figures, of which there are 94 in all, are re- 
peated from time to time. A careful classification of 
the types might be made to yield some evidence as 
to which windows are the work of each of the firms 
employed ; but I am bound to say that though I 
have tried the plan, I have not satisfied myself. I 
need say no more at this moment about the 
Messengers ; but I must ask you to remember quite 
clearly that in trying to make out the pictures in 
these windows, you must take no account of the 
figures in the middle light, from top to bottom. 

We have eliminated the top lights and the middle 
IIO 



APPENDIX 



light. There remain four pair of lights, two above 
and two below the crossbar. Each pair of lights 
contains a picture : four pictures go to a window. In 
most cases the two lower pictures illustrate two 
scenes in the New Testament history, and the two 
upper ones give types of these scenes drawn from the 
O.T. or elsewhere. That is the general arrange- 
ment of each window. There are exceptions, but I 
will reserve them until they require notice. The 
order of the windows, by the way, is simple and 
obvious. The first is at the north-west. We pro- 
ceed eastward to the east window, and then west- 
ward, ending with the west window. 

Now we will, if you please, deal rather more in 
detail with one or two of the windows. I shall take 
one on each side of the chapel, and the east window. 
I begin with the window that stands fourth from the 
east on the north side. In the two lower left-hand 
lights is the picture of the Last Supper. The space 
at the disposal of the artist renders it impossible for 
him to arrange it quite in the ordinary and conven- 
tional way. Our Lord is not the central figure. 
He is in the left-hand light. He has risen from the 
seat and is placing the sop in the mouth of Judas 
Iscariot, who is bending over from the right to 
receive it. You will see that in accordance with a 
common mediaeval practice Judas is represented as 
red haired. It was one of the beliefs of mediaeval 
physiognomists that red-haired people were specially 
prone to treachery and deceit. The type of this 
picture is in the two lights immediately above it 
the fall of the manna. The point of the selection 
lies in the words of our Lord in John vi. : "Not as your 
fathers did eat manna and are dead ; he that eateth 
of this bread shall live for ever." You have here a 
good specimen of Hedgeland's insertions in the head 
of the woman who is seated in the foreground. 
Ill 



APPENDIX 



In the right-hand lights at the bottom is the 
"Agony in the Garden." In this and a few of 
the other scenes from the Passion you may easily 
recognise a different hand. The figures here are 
smaller than elsewhere ; there is a roundness in 
their heads, and they have haloes or nimbi, which are 
of comparatively rare occurrence in these windows. 
I suspect the truth is that all large glass makers must 
have constantly kept in stock sets of scenes from the 
Passion which were always in request. This was 
not the case with the types from the O.T. They 
had to be specially drawn for these windows, and 
there is more uniformity perceptible in them than 
in the N.T. pictures. 

The type of the Agony is the " Fall of the 
Angels," a picture very rich in colour and interesting 
in design. At the top is the Father throned, on 
the /. ; on the r. are angels those who did not fall 
praising Him. There was a belief, you may 
know, that a tenth of the angels had fallen, and that 
man was created to fill the void created thereby. 
The nine orders of the unfallen angels are often com- 
pared by ancient divines to the nine pieces of silver 
in the parable that were not lost, or the ninety-nine 
sheep who did not stray. Man is the lost piece of 
silver, or the lost sheep. Then, below the feet of 
the Father, Michael is seen thrusting down the 
rebellious angels, and you will note that the lower 
they fall the more monstrous and demoniac their 
form becomes. 

It is not quite obvious at first why the Fall of 
Angels is chosen to typify the Agony in the 
Garden. It is, I think, because on two occasions 
just before the Passion our Lord speaks of the 
power of evil as being overcome. " Now is the 
judgment of this world : now is the prince of this 
world cast out," and again, " because the prince of 
112 



APPENDIX 



this world is judged." Another reason is possible. 
In some of the books from which these types were 
taken, the Agony in the Garden is coupled with 
the incident ot the men who were sent to arrest 
Christ falling backwards to the ground, and the 
fall of the rebel angels is in these books the 
type of the latter incident. Perhaps the designer 
of these windows, having such a book before him, 
made a slight error in his choice of the subject. 

That is a specimen of a window whose arrange- 
ment is quite normal. Now turn to the east window. 
It proves an exception to the rule I have laid down, 
and naturally, because it differs from the rest so 
greatly in size. The heraldry in the tracery, to 
begin with, is unique. Here and nowhere else in 
the glass you have the " Dragon of the great Pen- 
dragonship " holding a banner with the arms of 
Henry VII. Here alone also you have the ostrich 
feather of the Prince of Wales, and the motto Ich 
Dun. Below, instead of five vertical divisions, there 
are nine. There are no messengers with inscriptions 
and no types, only six scenes from the Passion, begin- 
ning at the bottom /. corner, and each of them occupy- 
ing not two lights but three. In the first three lights 
below the transom is the Ecce Homo, easily de- 
cipherable. In the centre three, Pilate washing 
his hands ; the decisive moment in the trial. Here 
the figure of Christ, with his back to the spectator. In 
the three on the r. is the Bearing of the Cross. In 
this you will see two non-biblical additions to the 
scene. There is Veronica kneeling and offering 
to our Lord the kerchief to wipe His face. As 
you know, the story went that the likeness of His 
face was miraculously impressed upon the linen cloth, 
and it is now one of the four great relics preserved 
in the piers of the dome of St. Peter's at Rome. 
You will also see that our Lord bears attached by 
113 H 



APPENDIX 



a cord to His waist a tablet of wood covered with 
spikes, meant to increase the pain and difficulty of 
His walking. It is a striking example of the way 
in which the later mediaeval thought loved to dwell 
upon and emphasise the pains of Christ in His 
passion. In the art of the Catacombs the Passion 
is practically never represented at all. The earliest 
Christians portrayed over and over again the miracles 
of healing and of life-giving and creative power. 
In this chapel, with the single exception of 
the Raising of Lazarus, there is no incident 
shown between the Temptation and the last 
Entry into Jerusalem. The Ministry is totally 
omitted. 

Above the transom you see in the /. three lights, 
the Nailing to the Cross. In the c., the most con- 
spicuous object in all the chapel, Christ crucified 
between the thieves. At the r. the body taken 
down from the Cross. In the r. upper corner a 
red mass of landscape is thought to be a nai've 
representation of the Field of Blood. The whole 
window vies with any in existence for dignity and 
splendour. A coloured engraving of it done in the 
early part of the century by one Baldrey is very 
commonly to be met with ; but though the composi- 
tion is not incorrectly rendered, the artist has 
made one capital mistake in entirely omitting to 
represent the leadwork in any way. 

Take next a window on the south side the 
fifth from the east. The two lower scenes represent 
the appearance of Christ at Emmaus. In the first 
He is disguised as a wayfarer, and meets the two 
disciples, who do not recognise Him. In the dis- 
tance is the " castle " of Emmaus. In the second 
picture on the r. hand is the moment of recogni- 
tion. " He was known unto them in the breaking 
of bread," it is said in the Gospel, and the mediaeval 
114 



APPENDIX 



mind construed this to mean that there was a peculi- 
arity in His habitual manner of breaking bread. He 
broke it, they said, quite evenly in half as if it had 
been cut with a knife ; and this you will see is shown 
plainly in the window. The broken surface of the 
bread is absolutely smooth and even. 

For types we have two scenes from the Apocrypha. 
One shows the angel Raphael meeting the young 
Tobias and offering himself to be his companion 
on the journey to R;iges. The angel in the story 
was disguised as a man, and did not reveal himself 
until the youth returned home. Herein lies the point 
of the comparison. The other is from the story of 
Bel and the Dragon. The prophet Habakkuk, 
about to carry food to the reapers in Judaea, is 
caught up by an angel and carried off to Babylon, 
where he gives the food to Daniel, who is confined 
in the lion's den. The appropriateness of this type 
must lie in the unexpected appearance and sudden 
vanishing of the prophet, which is likened to that 
of our Lord at Emmaus. The inscriptions in 
the window are a curious instance of careless work. 
They do not refer at all to the subjects repre- 
sented in the adjacent lights but to four scenes 
from the Acts of the Apostles, three of which 
occur in a later window where the inscriptions are 
repeated, while the fourth has no picture to it 
at all. 

I believe I have now said enough to put you in 
possession of the general arrangement of the windows. 
I must go on to say something more of'their subjects. 
The first of the whole series (at the north-west) is 
not arranged on the principle of type and antitype. It 
contains four consecutive scenes illustrating the Birth 
of the Virgin. The scene whence the story is 
ultimately derived is a very early fiction, perhaps 
written in the second century, and attributed to 

"5 



APPENDIX 



James, the brother of the Lord. The common 
name for it is the Protevangelium. The story of 
the Virgin's birth and parentage passed from it 
through various channels into the offices of the 
Roman Church, and is perpetuated in thousands 
of representations in art. Joachim and Anne, rich, 
old, and childless, are rejected because of their child- 
lessness when they come to make an offering in the 
temple. That is the beginning of the story, and 
the first scene in the window. In their grief they 
separate, but are consoled by angels, meet again, 
and the Virgin is born. The appearance of the 
angel to Joachim among his shepherds, the meeting 
of Joachim and Anne, and the birth ot the Virgin, 
are the remaining scenes in the first window. With 
the second we begin the series of type and antitype. 
The Virgin is presented by her parents at the temple, 
and takes up her abode there. The type of this 
you will seek in vain in the Bible. It represents 
two fishermen bringing a golden table to the Temple 
of the Sun, and the story is an elaborate mediaeval 
perversion of a tale derived from Valerius Maximus, 
a Roman writer, and author of a large collection of 
historical anecdotes. This second window is unlike 
any of the others both in style and arrangement. 
In style it has more of the Gothic and less of the 
Renaissance feeling. In arrangement it stands alone, 
because under the principal scenes there is a series of 
small figures, some of which carry scrolls alluding 
to other types of the scenes represented. One for 
instance has on it, " Jephthah offered his Daughter 
to the Lord," a type of the Presentation of the 
Virgin. And this window is unhesitatingly assigned 
by one of the best writers on the subject to Barnard 
Flower. 

In the third window I would call your attention 
to the type of the Annunciation. It is Eve tempted 



APPENDIX 



by the Serpent. It is in fact rather a contrast 
than a type. Sin entered into the world by means 
of a woman, Eve ; and by a woman, Mary, salvation 
also entered. A great deal, too, was made of the 
fact that Gabriel's first word to Mary, Ave (Hail), 
is the reversal of the letters of the name Eva. 

I do not call your attention to anything more on 
the north side at present. We come to the south- 
east window. I have already explained that the 
upper half of it is modern, and incredibly bad. I 
add now that in the old glass in the lower half, the 
type is placed side by side with the antitype, not 
above it. Great stress is laid in the windows on the 
south side upon the Resurrection and appearances of 
Christ. Four whole windows are devoted to this 
period of the Gospel history. Then, after the 
Ascension and Pentecost, which occupy one window, 
we have what is very uncommon in earlier mediaeval 
art, a series of subjects occupying three whole 
windows from the Acts of the Apostles. There 
are no types in these windows ; the scenes are 
consecutive, and in the selection of them I 
have always suspected the influence of the Refor- 
mation theology. Eight scenes are devoted to the 
life of St. Paul, the hero of the Reformers. It 
has been pointed out that in the wording of 
some of the inscriptions the influence of Erasmus's 
version is perceptible, and that Erasmus was 
resident in Cambridge when the windows were 
put up. In two of the scenes the Death of 
Ananias, and Paul and Barnabas at Lystra the 
artist had evidently had the Cartoons of Raphael 
in his mind, though neither scene is an exact copy 
of a cartoon. These windows, I think it cannot 
be doubted, are among the latest in the chapel. 
The technique shows signs of haste, and the 
burning has been imperfectly done. 
117 



With the two western windows on the south side 
we return to the Life of the Virgin, her death, 
funeral, assumption, and coronation. These are 
among the hardest to decipher in the chapel, and 
it has often been said that because they savoured of 
Popery they were wilfully damaged by Cromwell's 
soldiery. However, the examination we made of 
them at the time when they were releaded does not 
bear out this belief. We came to the conclusion 
that the breakages were purely accidental, and that the 
damage was chiefly due to unintelligent replacing of 
glass by persons who did not understand what the 
pictures meant. 

You will like to know perhaps something of the 
sources upon which the artists drew for their 
selection of types. There were a great many books 
in use from the twelfth century onwards, which dealt 
with the correspondences between the Old and New 
Testaments. Two which were especially popular 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were un- 
doubtedly used by the designer of these windows. 
They are famous books in the history of printing, 
having both appeared as block-books, but they are 
also common as manuscripts. One is the Biblia 
Pauperum, the Poor Man's Bible, the other the 
Speculum Humana Salvationis, the Mirror of Human 
Salvation. Out of thirty-nine types which appear in 
these windows, twenty or twenty-two occur in the 
Biblia Pauperum. Six are peculiar to the Speculum 
Humana Salvationis. Some ten or eleven scenes 
in our windows correspond to neither. 

A great deal more might be said about the sources 
whence the composition of the pictures are derived. 
There has been a good deal of wild talk about 
foreign influence Albert Diirer and Holbein and 
the like. We have seen cases where a work of 
Raphael has been before the artist, and parallelisms 



APPENDIX 



between our glass and the designs in Holbein's Bible 
cuts can be readily pointed out. I have no wish to 
deny that the designers were familiar with a good 
many foreign works, and that two of the workmen 
were Flemings. But the fact remains that the bulk 
of the work is English, designed and executed by 
Englishmen in England. And it is only accident 
and the excesses of foolish men which have deprived 
us of the means of realising the possibility of this 
earlier. Still, there are specimens of similar work 
in English churches. At St. James's Church, Bury 
St. Edmunds, one window is filled with fragments of 
old glass of just the period and style of these 
windows. At the parish church of Basingstoke, 
and in the house not far off called the Vyne, are 
large portions of somewhat later glass, all English 
and of the highest quality. 

In conclusion, it would be idle in the presence of 
these magnificent decorations to attempt a panegyric 
of their splendour and beauty. They speak to the 
eye at once. All that is wanted to make them 
speak to the mind, too, is a little patience, a little 
sympathy, and a modicum of preliminary informa- 
tion. With this last requisite I have been trying so 
far as I could to provide you. 

NOTE. In the foregoing pages I have not taken suffi- 
cient account of the strong probability that (a) Barnard 
Flower at his death may have left a large quantity of work 
in a more or less finished state, and that (3) the firms 
subsequently employed may have been working for him 
for some time before his death. 

During the year 1906 a Flemish inscription has been 
found upon window VI., which is dated 1517, and is 
commonly assigned to Barnard Flower. 



APPENDIX 



SUBJECTS OF THE WINDOWS 

(Each subject occupies two lights ; the centra/ light 
is omitted.} 

/..left-hand; r., right-hand. 



NORTH SIDE FROM WEST 

I. 

Upper I. . . Rejection of Joachim's Offering. 

Upper r. . . Angel appears to Joachim. 

Lower I. . . Joachim and Anne meet at the Golden 

Gate. 
Lower r. . . Birth of the Virgin. 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 

Lower r. 
Upper r. 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 
Lower r. 
Upper r. 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 
Lower r. 
Upper r. 



II. 

Presentation of the Virgin. 

The Golden Table offered in the Temple 

of the Sun. 

Marriage of the Virgin and Joseph. 
Marriage of Tobias and Sara. 

III. 

Annunciation. 

Eve tempted by the Serpent. 

Nativity. 

The Burning Bush. 

IV. 

Circumcision of Christ. 
Circumcision of Isaac. 
Adoration of the Magi. 
The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon. 



V. 

Lower I. . . Purification of the Virgin. 
Upper I. . . Purification of Women under the Law. 
Lower r. . . Flight into Egypt. 
Upper r. . . Flight of Jacob from Esau. 
120 



APPENDIX 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 
Lower r. 
Upper r. 



VI. 

Fall of the Idols in Egypt. 
The Golden Calf. 
Massacre of the Innocents. 
Athaliah slays the seed Royal. 



VII. 

Lower I. . . Baptism of Christ. 

Upper 1. . . Naarnan in Jordan. 

Lower r. . . Temptation of Christ. 

Upper r. . . Esau sells his birthright. 

VIII. 

Lower I. . . Raising of Lazarus. 

Upper I. . . Elisha raises the Shunam mite's Son. 

Lower r. . . Entry into Jerusalem. 

Upper r. . . The Triumph of David. 



IX. 

Lower I. . . Last Supper. 

Upper I. , . The Manna. 

Lower r. . . Agony in the Garden. 

Upper r. . . Fall of the Angels. 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 
Lower r. 
Upper r. 



Betrayal. 
Death of Abel. 
Christ mocked. 
Shiinei and David. 



XI. 

Lower I. . . Christ before the High Priest. 

Upper I. . . Jeremiah imprisoned. 

Lower r. . . Christ before Herod. 

Upper r. . . Shame of Noah. 



XII. 

Lower I. . . Christ scourged. 

Upper I. . . Job tormented by demons and by his 

wife. 

Lower r. . . Christ crowned with thorns. 
Upper r. . . The bridegroom in Canticles crowned 

(Cant. iii. n). 
121 



APPENDIX 



EAST WINDOW 
XIII. 



Lower 1. (3 lights) EcceHomo! 



Centre 
Lower r. 
Upper I. 
Centre 
Upper r. 



Pilate washing his hands. 

Bearing the Cross. Veronica. 

Christ nailed to the Cross. 

The Crucifixion with thieves, centurion, c. 

Deposition. 



Upper half 

Lower r. 
Lower I. 



SOUTH SIDE FROM EAST 

XIV. 
The Brazen Serpent (by Hedgeland, 

1845)- 

. The Pieta (mourning over Christ). 
Naomi bewails her husband. 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 
Lower r. 
Upper r. 



XV. 

Entombment. 
Joseph cast into the pit. 
Descent into Hell. 
The Exodus. 



XVI. 

Lower I. . . Resurrection. 

Upper I. . . Jonah cast up. 

Lower r. . . Christ appears to the Virgin. 

Upper r. . . Tobias returning met by his mother Anna. 



XVII. 

Lower I. . . The women at the Sepulchre. 

Upper I. . . Reuben finds the pit empty. 

Lower r. . . The appearance to Mary Magdalene. 

Upper r. . . Darius finds Daniel alive in the Den. 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 
Lower r. 
Upper r. 



XVIII. 

The meeting on the way to Emmaus. 
Raphael meets Tobias. 
The supper at Emmaus. 
Habakkuk feeds Daniel in the Den. 

122 



APPENDIX 



XIX. 

Lower I. . . Incredulity of Thomas. 

Upper I. . . Return of the Prodigal Son. 

Lower r. . . Christ appears to the Apostles. 

Upper r. . . Joseph welcomes Jacob in Egypt. 



Lower I. 
Upper I. 
Lower r. 
Upper r. 



XX. 

Ascension. 

Translation of Elijah. 

Pentecost. 

Giving of the Law. 



XXI. 

Lower I. . . The Apostles going to the Temple. 

Upper I. . . Peter and John heal the lame man. 

Lower r. . . Death of Ananias. 

Upper r. . . The Apostles arrested and scourged. 



Upper I. 
Upper r. 

Lower I. 
Lower r. 



XXII. 

Conversion of Paul. 

Paul disputing at Damascus, and let 

down from the wall. 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra. 
Paul stoned at Lystra. 



XXIII. 

Upper I. . . Paul casting out the spirit of divination at 

Philippi. 

Ijrwer I. . . Paul saying farewell at Miletus. 
Upper r. . . Paul before the chief captain. 
Lower r. . . Paul before the Emperor. 



XXIV. 

Lower I. . . Death of the Virgin. 

Upper 1. . . Death of Tobit. 

Lower r. . . Funeral of the Virgin. Jews attack the 

bier ; their hands are miraculously 

struck off. 

Upper r. . . Funeral of Jacob. 
123 



APPENDIX 



XXV. 

Lower I. . . Assumption of the Virgin. 

Upper I. . . Translation of Enoch. 

Lower r. . . Coronation of the Virgin. 

Upper r. . . Solomon places Bathsheba beside him. 



WEST WINDOW 

XXVI. 

(Modern) . . The Last Judgment (by Messrs. Clayton 
and Bell, 1879). 



124 



INDEX 



ADAMS, J., provost, 33, 35 

Advowsons, 64, 65 

Altai, 28 

Arms, grant of, 51 

Armstead, H. H., sculptor, 46 

Audit room, 42 

Austin, C. , carver, 28 

" BACKS," 5 

Baker, P., provost, 71 

Baldrey, J. K., artist, 114 

Bathing forbidden, 72 

Battle, W., University bene- 
factor, 97 

Beavers, 76 

Bee, Abbeye of, 64 

Belfry, 30 

Bells, 30 

Bere, J., freemason, 29 

Bilney, T., martyr, 70 

" Blackstrap," 80 

Bodley, G. F. , architect, 43 

Bodley's Court, 3, 5 

Boleyn, Anne, Queen, 26, 28 

Boreshede, 6 

Bownde, R., glass worker, 105 

Bradshaw, H. , librarian, 3, 
23, 101 

Brassie's Chapel, 20, 24 

Bridge, 4, 44-6 

Bryan, J. .Greek scholar, 69, 88 

Bull-baiting, &c., 72 

Bull Hotel, 42 

Burials, 17, 23 

Bursars' Parlour, 10 

Butteries, 10 

CALIXTUS III., Pope, 30 
Canning, Stratford, Viscount 
Stratford de Redcliffe, 3, 99 
Canterbury, John, 40 
Carmelites, 6 



Cemetery, 16 
Chantries, 20 
Chapel, 2, 5, 10, 18 

foundation-stone, 18 

flying buttresses, 2 
windows, 4, 46, 103 
pavement, 29 

yard, 44-5 

attendance, 79 
Chapman, J., archdeacon, 74 
Charter, first, i, 49 

second, 50 

Cheke, Sir J. , provost, 60, 69, 

88 
Chetwynd Court, 3, 41-2 

W. , benefactor, 41 

Chum, 12, 76 

Churchill, J., Marquis of 

Blandford, 20 
" Church Yard," 44 
Clare College, 3 

Bridge, 4 

Clayton & Bell, glass workers, 

104 

Clerks' lodgings, 33 
Clock House, 30 
Close, N., fellow, 18 
Cobham, Lord, sons of, 90 
' ' Coke upon Littleton," 74 
College band, 81 

disorders, 73 
government, 86 

grounds, 44 
Collins, S. , provost, 67, 73 
Commission, Parliamentary, of 

1861, 84 
Composition with University, 

56 

Coplestone, J., provost, 33 
Copyholds, 65 
Coton, 65 
Cow Lane, 10, 76 



125 



INDEX 



Cowell, J., Master of Trinity 

Hall, 77, 92 
Cox, R., bishop, 70, 88 
Coxe, W. , archdeacon, 96 
" Crambo," 77 
Cricket, 46, 80 
Croke, R., Greek scholar, 

69, 88 

Cromwell, Oliver, 67 
Crosby Hall, 40 

DALLAM, organ-builder, 27 
Dampier, H., judge, 100 

-J. L. t 84 

Dartmouth, v. sub Legge 
da Volterra, Daniele, 29 
Day, G. , provost, 60 
Degrees, 57, 78 
Deighton, bookseller, 79 
Deposition, The, 29 
Dining Hall, 3, 80 
Dividends, 64 
Dominican friars, 6 
" Dors," 77 

EDWARD IV., 18 
Elizabeth, Queen, 12, 29, 71 
Ely, R. , master mason, 19, 24 
Eminent Kingsmen, 88 
Endowments, 63 
Erasmus, 6, 68, 117 
Essex, Mr., 28, 37 
Eton College, buildings, 15 

oppidans, 62 

seal, 51 

statutes, 49 

Visitor, 56 

Eugenius IV., Pope, 55 
Examinations, exemption 
from, abandoned, 57, 79 



FAWCETT, W. M. , architect 

42 

Fellows, 53, 75, 83, 85 
absentee, 61 

professorial, 86 
Fellow commoners, 62 
Fellows' garden, 46 
Fisher, J., bishop, 68 
Fletcher, G. , traveller, 90 
P. , poet, 91 



Flower, B. .glass worker, 104-5, 

6, 10-19 

Football forbidden, 72 
Founder's days, 50 
design, 15 

statue, i, 46 
will, 15 

Fountain, i, 46 

Fox, E. , provost, 70, 88 

Frith, John, martyr, 70, 88 

GARNER, T. , architect, 28 
Gateway, original, 4, 10 
" Geldinges Close," 45 
George, W. , provost, 74 
" Germany," 70 
Gibbs, J., architect, 35 
Gibbs's building, 2, 31, 33, 39 
design, 36 

foundation-stone, 36 
Gibbs, Sir V., judge, 96 
Glover, R. , martyr, 71 
Glynn, R., benefactor, 97 
Goad, R., provost, 67, 72 
Godolphin, F. , Baron Godol- 

phin of Heist on, 30 
God's House, 5 
Goodall, J., provost of Eton, 

83 

Grammar College, 5 
Grantchester, 65 



R., provost, 



HACUMBLEN, 

20, 29 

Hacumblen's chapel, 20 
Harington, Sir J., 90 
Harris, R. , organ-builder, 27 
Hawkesmore, N., architect, 

34. 35 

models of his design, 34 
Hedgeland, J., glass worker, 

108 

Henry VI. See Founder. 
Henry VII., 19 
Henry VIII., 27, 29 
Herkomer, H., portraits by, 3 
High Street, 5 

table, 3 

Hill, Messrs., organ-builders, 

27 

Hone,Galyon,glassworker,io5 
126 



INDEX 



Howard, F. , Earl of Carlisle,' ORES, R., provost, 3, 23, 84 
29, 96 Old Court, 5, 6, 8, 10, 33-4 

H., Earl of Northanip- - by Tucker, 11,79 

Old Mogul Whist Club, 81 
Orde, T. , Lord Bolton, 95 



ton, 90 

Hullier, J., martyr, 71 
Hungerford, benefactor, 37 



JAMES, M. R., provost, 103 

T. , master of Rugby 

School, 97 

KEMPE, C. E., glass worker, 

108 
King's, modern, n 

new, 3, 68 

old, 4 

lane, 6, 40-1 

LANGTON, J., Chancellor of 

University, 18, 49 
Latimer, H., bishop, 69 
Lawns, 3, 5, 44-5 
Lay ton, John, 60 
Lectern, 29 
Lectures, 79 
Lecture rooms, 42 
Legge, G. , Baron Dartmouth, 

33 

Le Grene, 44 
Library, 3, 21 
Lofft, Capel, 79, 100 
Lonsdale, J., bishop, 99 
Luther, Martin, 69 

MACAULAY, Lord, 61 
Mansfield, J., judge, 100 
Market Square, 6 
Master, W. , public orator, 

ZH 

Millington, W., provost, 49 
Milne Street, 5, 8 
Milton Rectory, 74 
Money chest, 21 
Mountague, R. , bishop, 92 
Music Library, 21 

NEW COLLEGE, Oxford, 50, 

57, 84 

Newton, Sir Isaac, 60, 68 
Nycholson, J. , glass worker, 

105-107 



Organ, 2, 26-7 

PAPAL Bull, 55 
Patteson, J., judge, 100 
Pearson, J., bishop, 92 
Piron Lane, 5 
Plague, 73 

Plautus' Aulularia, 72 
Pole, Cardinal, 70 
Person, R., professor, 80 
Portraits, 3, 96 
Posers, 52, 84 
Pratt, C., Earl Camden, 95 
Precedence of Kingsmen, 78 
Prizes, 97 

Provostship, 59, 60, 74 
Provost's Lodge, 12, 13, 33 
Pulpit, 21 

QUARRELS, 59, 73 

RELIGIOUS privileges, 55 

Rennell, Thomas, 99 

Reredos, 28 

Reve, T. , glass worker, 105 

Richard III., 18 

River, 3 

Roderick, C. , provost, 60 

Rood loft, 26 

SAINT AUSTIN'S Hostel, 6 

Catharine's College, 40, 
42, 68 

Edward's Hostel, 5 

Giles' Church, 31 

John Zachary's Church, 5 

John Baptist's Church, 6 

Nicholas, patron saint, 7, 

49 
Rhadegund, nuns of, 5, 

6 

Thomas' Hostel, 5 

" Saint's Rest," 38 
Saunders, L., martyr, 71, 88 
Scholars, foundation, 52-4, 

75-7, 85 



I2 7 



INDEX 



Scholars, open, 85 

poor, 63 

Scholar commoners, 62 
Scholars' Piece, 4, 45 
Scott, Sir G. G., architect, 41 
Scott's building, 3, 41 
Screen, i, 42 
Seal, 50 

Senior Scholar's book, 75 
Sermon, Lady Day, 21 
Servitors, 63 
Simeon, C. , divine, 23, 38, 46, 

97-99 
Sizars, 63 
Skeleton case, 21 
Snape, A., provost, 36, 74 
Staincoat Hole, 75 
Stalls, 26-7 

Statutes, 49, 51, 59, 84-5 
Stephen, J. K., 101 
Stone used in college buildings, i 

2i-3> 30. 35. 38, 43. 46 
Sturgeon, J., master mason, 

i9 

Sumner, J. , provost, 20 

I. B. , archbishop, 100 

Symondes, S., glass worker, 

105, 107 

THACKERAY, G. , provost, 20, 
42,83 

T. , Master of Harrow 

School, 74 

Toft Monks Wood, 34 
Tomkyns, John, 84 
Tompson, G., bridge-builder, 

44 

Townshend, C., Viscount 
Townshend, 94 



Treasury, 10 

Tucker, W. H., ir, 79, 83 

Tutor, 87 

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, 4, 10 

Union, 79 
Upavon, 37 

VACATIONS, 77 

Visitor, Bishop of Lincoln, 56 

WALLER, E., poet, 92 
Walpole, Horace, 3, 94 

Sir Robert, 3, 93 
Walsingham, Sir F. , 89 
Wastell, J., master mason, 19 
Waynflete, W. of, provost of 

Eton, 50 

Weaver, T. , benefactor, 28 
West, N. , bishop, 69 
Westcott, B. F. , bishop, 42, 

5i 
Whichcote, B. , provost, 60, 

67, 73 
White Canons of Sempring- 

ham, 5 

White Horse Inn, 6, 70 
Wilkins, W., architect, 38 
Wilkins's design, 38 
Wilkins's building, 2, 3, 38 
William IIL,6o 
Wodelarke, R., provost, 18, 

40, 68 

Woodroffe, a carver, 27 
Woolrich, J., master mason, 

19, 24 

Wren, Sir Christopher, 34 
Wyllyamson, F., glass worker, 

105. 107 



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